The Printers’ Vocabulary

A Collection of some 2500 technical terms, phrases, abbreviations and other expressions mostly relating to Letterpress Printing many of which have been in use since the time of Caxton by Charles Thomas Jacobi, published in 1888 plus some additional definitions extracted from Southward's Dictionary of Typography.

The following text currently omits entries which contain special symbols that have yet to make it into Unicode.


AIs the signature used by the printer for the preliminary matter of a work. - J
A.P.These initials stand for ‘‘author’s proof’’. - J
AbbreviationsCharacters or signs which indicate words or letters that have been shortened — such as record sorts in old books or reprints. - J
Accented lettersLetters with various marks on used in our own and foreign languages for pronunciation or abbreviation, such as à é î ö ñ ā Ä• etc. - J
AccentsThis term refers to the various signs used as accents which are cast singly for use with kerned letters. - J
AccessoriesThe tools and other small details necessary for the working of any press or machine. - J
Account booksThe class of books used in the commercial world for the keeping of accounts, such as ledgers, etc. - J
Account lineCompositors working in companionships usually charge something ‘‘on account’’ — a vague item which is supposed to cover work in hand but not finished. - J
Account markA sign thus â„€ used in commercial matters, meaning literally ‘‘account current’’. - J
Acute accentA mark placed over a letter, thus á. - J
Adams’ machineAn American platen machine, first invented by a person of the name of Adams some sixty years since. - J
AddendaThe Latin plural for addition — appendices or something added to a book. - J
AddendumThe Latin singular for ‘‘Addenda,’’ which see. - J
Address cardsPersonal cards containing the name and address. - J
Admir.Abbreviation used in the reading-room for ‘‘note of admiration.’’ - J
AdmirationA punctuation mark, note of exclamation! - J
AdsAbbreviation of word ‘‘advertisements,’’ mostly used by news-hands. - J
AdvsAnother form of abbreviation for the word ‘‘advertisements.’’ - J
Albert envelopesSmall square envelopes to take Albert notepaper in half, 4¼ × 3¼ inches. - J
Albert noteA size of note paper cut 6 × 3â…ž inches. - J
AlbertypeA photographic process of printing. - J
Albion PressAn Iron Press invented by Mr R. C. Cope. It is of great power, and smooth and easy in working. It is much esteemed for its extreme lightness; it runs very easily, the pull is short, the power great, and the means whereby it is obtained so simple that there is little fear of the Press getting out of order. It is very easily taken down for cleaning, and put up again. The power is gained by causing an inclined piece of steel to become perpendicular; in so doing the platen is forced down, and the impression takes place at the moment the piece of steel is brought to a vertical position. On the return of the bar, the platen is raised by a spiral spring fixed onto the head of the press.  - S
AldinePrinting after the style of Aldus Manutius, the celebrated Venetian printer who invented italic types, and flourished in the fifteenth century. - J
Alexandra pressAn iron printing hand-press after the Albion style. - J
Algebraical signsMarks of expression used in algebra. - J
All got upThis term is used when copy is finished, or type is all set up. - J
All inWhen type is limited and all distributed, it is said to be ‘‘all in.’’ - J
All outThis term is used when copy or type is exhausted. - J
All upWhen type is all used, or copy all in type, it is said to be ‘‘all up.’’ - J
AlloyThe metal of which type is made is an alloy principally of lead, antimony, and tin. - J
AlterationsA general term for heavy corrections or the changing of margins. - J
Altering marginAdapting the furniture from one size to another, i.e. from small paper to large paper, or vice versa. - J
AlumA piece of ordinary alum used by compositors for hardening the fingers in distributing. - J
American hard packingThis refers to the system of making ready in vogue in America, in contradistinction to the usual style adopted in England. - J
AmpersandThe abbreviation or sign for the word ‘‘and’’ thus — & (roman), & (italic), & (black letter). - J
Ancient customsThose customs recognized by long usage. - J
Anglo-French machineA cylindrical printing machine. It is the result of various English and French ideas. - J
AntiquaA German expression for Roman types. - J
AntiquarianA size of drawing paper, 53 × 31 inches. - J
Antique typeFounts of old or mediaeval character, such as Caslon’s. - J
ApostropheA mark of punctuation used to denote the possessive or to indicate a contraction. - J
AppearingA term used to express (say) the length of a page exclusive of white line — just that part of a page which ‘‘appears’’ in printing. - J
Applegath machineA cylindrical machine first invented by Mr. Applegath in the early part of the present century. - J
Arab machineA small platen machine for jobbing purposes originally made in America. - J
Arabic figuresOrdinary figures, roman or italic, thus — 1 2 3 etc., as distinct from roman numerals. - J
ArborAn iron pillar which was used in the Stanhope press to attach the bar-handle to. - J
ArmAny connecting rod between two distinct working parts of a machine. - J
ArtotypeA photographic process of printing from glass plates. - J
Ascending lettersThese are all letters with up-strokes, such as b d h k l. - J
AssesCompositors were thus termed by pressmen by way of retaliation for being called ‘‘pigs.’’ - J
AsteriskA mark thus * technically called a star, generally used as a reference mark. - J
Astronomical signsMarks used in connection with astronomy. - J
AtlasA size of writing or drawing paper, 33 × 26 inches. - J
Author’s proofA proof bearing corrections made by the author or editor. - J
AutographyThis process is the act of transferring writings or drawings from paper to stone. - J
AxleThat part of a machine on which a wheel or shaft revolves. - J
‘‘O.’’Curtailment of ‘‘overseer’’ of any department in a printing office. - J
BIs the first signature of the printer’s alphabet (4 being used for the preliminary matter, usually done last). - J
Back boxesIs a term applied to the unoccupied boxes of an upper case where there are no small caps or accents. - J
Back markThe back mark of a laying-on board of a printing machine. - J
Back of a typeThe reverse side to the nick or belly of a type. - J
Back pagesThe even or ‘‘verso’’ pages of a printed sheet. - J
Back stayUsed for checking the running-out of the press from underneath the platen. - J
Back-upIs to reverse the motion of a machine, mostly performed by hand. - J
Backing metalA metal used for the backs of electrotype plates to bring the thickness up to the standard pica, or type-high if required — the electro itself being a mere ‘‘shell.’’ - J
BacksReferring to the ‘‘back’’ margin of pages (see ‘‘Gutters’’) — that part of a book which is sewn when bound; sometimes the crosses are thus termed. - J
Backside of the formeThat part of the forme which touches the imposing surface or bed of press. - J
Bad colourToo much or too little ink used — also uneven distribution and rolling. - J
Bad copyApplied to badly written MSS. and ‘‘lean’’ copy. - J
Bad layA sheet badly laid or placed in printing — out of the square or centre. - J
Bad matterTerm used to indicate type for distribution. - J
Bad regigisterIn printing the second forme if pages do not back correctly. - J
Bag capA size of brown paper, 24 × 19½ inches. - J
BakedApplied to type when sticking or caked together, and hard to separate in distributing. - J
BalaamA slang term for standing matter kept for filling up newspapers. - J
Balaam boxA slang term for the receptacle containing rejected MSS. - J
Ball knifeA blunt knife which was used for scraping up the old ink-balls. - J
Ball leathersThe outer coverings of the ink-balls were thus described, though not necessarily leather. - J
Ball liningsAn inner covering used for the old ink-balls. - J
Ball nailsTacks or clouts used for fastening on the coverings of the old ink-balls. - J
Ball necksThat part of the stock of the ink-ball between the handle and the pelt. - J
Ball racksA receptacle for ink-balls out of use. - J
Ball stocksThe handle and body combined used for the old ink-balls. - J
BallsThe old custom of distributing ink was by ‘‘balls,’’ rollers being a modem institution. - J
BandA belt or strap for imparting motion from the shaft to a machine. - J
BankA wooden table or bench for placing the sheets on as printed. - J
Bank paperA thin paper mostly used for foreign letter or note paper to save cost of postage. - J
BarA cylindrical printing machine with ‘‘drop-bar’’ action for laying on. - J
BargeA small wooden box with six or eight divisions used for holding spaces to alter justification in making corrections. See ‘‘Space paper’’ - J
Barged caseWhen a case is uneven with the various sorts — some full, others empty — it is thus described. - J
Bastard fountsA fount of type cast on a larger body than originally intended for. This obviates trouble and the expense of leading a smaller body. - J
Bastard titleA fly or half-title before the full title of a work. . - J
BatterBroken or damaged letter or letters through accident, wear and tear, or carelessness. - J
Beam engineA vertical or perpendicular engine. - J
BeanoA slang abbreviation for ‘‘beanfeast,’’ which is, however, usually termed ‘‘goose’’ or wayzgoose by compositors. - J
Beard of a letterThe blank sloping part, foot or head, of the shoulder of a type not occupied by the face of the letter. - J
BearerA clump or anything type-high to bear off the impression from the light parts of a broken forme. - J
BeatIn order to impart good colour to a particularly solid part of a forme — a woodcut, for instance — a pressman beats that portion with his roller to give it additional ink. - J
Beat fatTo give ample ink in rolling or beating a cut. - J
Beat leanTo insufficiently ink a forme in rolling or inking a cut. - J
BeaterA wooden implement used in the warehouse in packing, to make the ends and corners of a parcel lie flat and square. - J
BedThe table or ‘‘coffin’’ of a machine or press upon which the forme lies. - J
Bed of the frameThe lower part of the frame, which forms a shelf that can be used for placing surplus sorts, etc. on. - J
Begin a fresh parTo commence a fresh paragraph by means of indentation. - J
Begin evenTo expedite composition where the copy is in long paragraphs, the compositor starts at random, that is, in the middle of a sentence, and the preceding compositor ‘‘makes even’’ to his ‘‘take’’ of copy. - J
BellowsThe ordinary domestic article used for blowing the dust out of cases which have been lying by out of use. - J
Belly of a typeThe front or nick side of a type. - J
BeltsThe straps or bands used for driving machinery. - J
BenvenueA kind of entrance fee paid to the chapel by a workman on entering a fresh office — an old custom. Derived from the French bienvenue, welcome. - J
Bevel wheelA cog wheel bevelled to fit into a similar one in driving machinery at right angles. - J
Bevelled edgesBook covers and cards are thus termed when the edges are sloped or chamfered. - J
Bevelled rulesRules to properly form a square frame or border must be bevelled at an angle of forty-five degrees. - J
BillA term for a broadside or poster. - J
Bills in parliamentA class of work which has a par ticular scale of prices in composition. - J
BindTo do up in cloth or otherwise a book or pamphlet. - J
BinderA short term for a bookbinder. - J
BinderyAn Americanism for a bookbinding establishment. - J
BindingIn locking-up a forme if the furniture is longer or wider than the type and doubles, it is said to bind, and the pages cannot be tightened up properly. - J
BiteWhen a page or portion thereof is not printed by reason of the frisket being badly cut out and the impression only shows. - J
BklrAn abbreviation for ‘‘black letter’’ used by booksellers in cataloguing. - J
Black and whiteA euphemism for paper and print. - J
Black letterA general expression used to indicate old English, text, or church type. - J
BlacksWhen a space, quadrat, or furniture rises and is imprinted on the sheet. Also used when woodcuts and electros are not sufficiently cleared out, and print the low parts. - J
Blank pageAny page of a forme that has no print on. - J
BlanketsFlannel or woollen cloth used in the tympans of a press or on the cylinder of a machine. Not used very much now except for old and uneven type — the new system of hard packing being preferred. - J
BlanksBlank pages or spaces are sometimes expressed thus. - J
BleedWhen a book or pamphlet has been cut down too much, so as to touch the printed matter. - J
Blind blockedLettering on book covers not inked or gilt — simply impressed. - J
Blind PA paragraph mark ¶ so called from the loop of the p being closed. - J
BlockA general term used — embracing woodcuts, electros, or zincos. - J
Block booksThe early books of the Chinese were thus called; they were printed entirely from engraved blocks. - J
BlockedThis applies to the lettering on cloth book-covers, which is blocked at one operation, not hand-stamped. - J
Blocked-upType is said to be blocked-up, when owing to author, or over-pressure in press or machine-room, the formes cannot be printed off. - J
Blotting paperPaper of a very soft and absorbent nature — use obvious. - J
Blow-off pipeAn outlet pipe at the bottom of a boiler. - J
Board racksRacks, made in ‘‘bulks’’ usually, to hold laying-up boards. - J
BoardsA general term for paste and cardboards. A short term for the laying-up boards used by compositors for distribution. Also applied to wetting and glazed boards. - J
BodkinA pointed steel instrument fixed in a round handle, mostly used to correct with in the metal. - J
BodyThis is the shank of a letter. Also applied to the text or general type of a volume, ‘‘body of the work.’’ - J
Body of the workThe text or subject-matter of a volume is thus described to distinguish it from the preliminary, appendix, or notes. - J
Boiler gaugeA tube to show depth of water in boiler. - J
Boiler tubesThe tubes which run at the back of the furnace to carry off the smoke to the shaft. - J
BoldThis expression applies to fat-faced type, such as is used in catalogues, etc. See ‘‘Clarendon.’’ - J
BolsterA stop at the end of the ribs of the press to prevent the carriage running out too far. - J
BoltsHeads and fore-edge are thus described by the binder in receiving instructions for opening or not opening edges of a book. - J
Book fountsFounts of type distinct from fancy or jobbing types. - J
Book pressThe warehouse screw-press which was used, previously to hydraulic presses, for pressing books. - J
Book quoinsA medium size of wooden quoin — the larger kind being called ‘‘news quoins.’’ - J
Book-houseA printing office where book-work more especially is executed, in contradistinction to a jobbing or news-office. - J
Book-workThat class of work which is distinct from jobbing or newspaper. - J
BookingWhen a book is gathered in sections, on account of the great number of sheets in the volume, and the different sections are afterwards gathered together to form the book, this term is applied. - J
BookletsAn affected term for short or small books or pamphlets. - J
Books (Sizes of)Various kinds, such as folio, quarto, octavo, sixteenmo, thirty-twomo, etc., which see respectively. - J
Botanical signsMarks of expression used in botany. - J
BotchBad or careless workmanship. See ‘‘Fudge.’’ - J
BotcherA bad or careless workman. - J
Bottle-arsedType thickened at the feet through wear and tear in continual impression and improper planing down. - J
Bottle-neckedType thicker at the top than the bottom — the reverse of ‘‘bottle-arsed.’’ - J
Bottom boardsThe lower or taking-off boards of a printing machine. - J
Bottom lineThe last line in a page. - J
Bottom notesFoot-notes are sometimes thus called, to distinguish them from side-notes. - J
BoundThe term for books when in covers — cloth or otherwise, as distinct from books in quires. - J
BourgeoisThe name of a type one size larger than Brevier and one size smaller than Long Primer — equal to half a Great Primer in body. - J
Bowing a letterAn old expression for breaking and discarding a battered letter. - J
Bowra rule cutterA small rule or lead cutter invented by Mr. Bowra, and made by Messrs. Harrild and Sons. - J
Box inA term used to indicate that rules should be placed round as a border. - J
BoxesThe divisions of a type case. - J
Boxwood shooting stickA locking-up stick made of that particular kind of wood. - J
Brace pliersAn implement used for curving brass rule in making braces. - J
Braces{ These are cast on their own bodies and by degrees of ems, and used to connect lines. Longer ones are usually made of brass rule by special pliers. - J
BracketA holder or hanger from the roof to support shafting. - J
BrakeApparatus for facilitating the stopping of machinery. - J
Branch outTo lead or ‘‘white’’ out a title or display lines of any kind. - J
Brass circlesThese are used for jobbing purposes, such as seals, trade marks, etc., and made oval or round, but generally called circles. - J
Brass composing rulesIn order to expedite the setting of type compositors use a rule which is shifted line by line. They are sometimes made of steel. - J
Brass curvesCurves used for shaping the lines of type in display work — either circular or semicircular. - J
Brass faceElectrotypes are brass faced to prevent red ink turning dirty, when it is requisite to print in that colour. - J
Brass rulesUsed for borders and lines in columns, etc., and cast to different thicknesses. - J
Brass rules (Varieties of)There are several kinds, such as dotted, wavy, plain, double, thick, thin, etc. - J
BrayThis is to distribute ink on the table by means of the brayer, preparatory to taking it on the roller. - J
Brayer— A wooden implement for rubbing out ink on the table for fresh distribution. - J
Brayer ink tableA table used by pressmen on which to bray ink out, distinct from cylindrical ink tables. - J
BreakAn expression used to indicate the end or commencement of a paragraph. It is also indicated in copy by a bracket mark, thus [ or ] - J
Break of a letterThe surplus metal on the foot of a letter as cast from the mould. - J
Break upAn amateurish expression for distribute or clear away. - J
Break up into parsTo break up solid copy into short paragraphs. - J
Bremner machinesVarious platen and cylindrical machines invented by Mr. Samuel Bremner. - J
BrevierA size of type one size larger than Minion and one size smaller than Bourgeois. - J
Brevier brass ruleBrass rules cast on a Brevier body. - J
BrilliantA size of type one size larger than Minnikin and one size smaller than Gem. - J
Bring upTo make ready or level the type by overlaying or patching up. - J
Bristol boardsA class of very fine pasteboards chiefly used for drawing purposes. - J
BroadA piece of furniture, wood or metal, four picas in width. - J
Broad and narrowFurniture seven picas in width — a broad and narrow combined. - J
Broad quotationsMetal quotations four ems pica square. - J
Broad thirds cardA ‘‘large’’ card cut into three the long way. - J
BroadsideA sheet printed one side only, such as a poster or bill. - J
Broadside chasesLarge chases without cross-bars used for this class of work. - J
Broadside composing stickA long implement specially made of wood for lightness. - J
Broken letterIs said of type pied or squabbled. - J
Broken matterSee ‘‘Broken letter.’’ - J
Broken neckWhen the handle of the old ink-ball stock was broken, it was thus described. - J
Bronze inkVarious inks made with an addition of bronze. When dry, they give a decided metallic appearance to the surface. - J
Bronze preparationA varnish used for printing, preparatory to dusting the bronze on the impressed letters. - J
Bronze printingThe art of printing in bronze. - J
Bronzing machineA mechanical contrivance to economize time and obviate waste of material. - J
Brooks’ pressAn improved Stanhope press invented by Mr. Brooks in the early part of this century. - J
BrownsA technical term used to describe the make of paper known as ‘‘brown paper.’’ - J
Brush outTo clean out a forme by means of lye or turpentine. - J
BulkUsually the bench situated at the end of a composing frame. - J
BulletWhen a workman is discharged without notice he is said to have ‘‘got the bullet.’’ Sometimes it is used when he receives notice to leave in the usual manner. - J
Bullock pressOne of the original Web printing machines of American make, called after a person of that name. - J
Bullock’s heartPressmen’s expression for 250 copies working — a ‘‘lean’’ number. - J
BundleUsually means two reams of paper in a parcel. - J
BurThe roughness left on a letter through insufficient dressing by the type-founder. - J
Burnished edgesWhen edges are coloured and polished with a burnisher. - J
Business cardsThe class of cards used in commercial circles denoting one’s business, name, and address. - J
Button of tympanThe stud on the frame which the hook catches in order to hold the inner and outer tympans secure. - J
Button onA slang term sometimes used by printers for a workman with ‘‘a fit of the blues.’’ - J
CIs the second signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
Cabinet cardsCards cut 4¼ × 6½ inches, used by photographers for mounting prints of that size. - J
Calendered paperPaper very highly rolled or glazed, much used for the printing of illustrated books or magazines. - J
CalenderingRolling or glazing of paper is thus described. - J
CamA wheel of irregular shape (not round) to impart eccentric motion to any particular part of a machine. - J
CambricThis material was formerly used instead of parchment for covering tympans in fine presswork. - J
Campbell machineA single cylinder machine of American make. - J
CancelA reprint of a leaf or leaves owing to a mistake — literary or technical — and usually indicated by an asterisk in the white line. - J
CanonA type four picas deep in body, but somewhat small in face. - J
CapitalsLetters other than lower case or small capitals. - J
Carbon paperBlack manifold paper used by drapers and others for duplicating invoices, etc. - J
Card chasesSmall chases used for cards or similar small jobs. - J
Card machineA small treadle — sometimes worked by steam-power — for the printing of cards or other small jobs. - J
Card pressA small jobbing hand-press — treadle machines are sometimes so called — used for printing cards or other small work. - J
Card-cutting machineA small machine specially made for the cutting of cards. - J
CardboardBoards made, sometimes of pulp, and sometimes of sheets pasted together, and afterwards rolled. - J
CardsGeneral term for paste or pulp boards. This term is often applied to the various sizes cut from the boards. - J
Cards (Sizes of)There are several regular sizes, such as large, small, thirds, town, cabinet, carte de visite, etc., which see respectively. - J
CaretMarked thus ⁁ to indicate an insertion in copy. - J
CarriageThe bed or coffin on which the forme is laid and which runs under the platen or cylinder in a printing press or machine. - J
Carte de visite cardsCards cut 4â…› × 2½ inches, used by photographers for mounting prints of that size. - J
Cartridge paperA machine-made paper exceptionally hard-sized. - J
CaseThe receptacle in which type is laid to compose from. When in pairs, defined as upper and lower respectively. - J
Case bargedAn uneven case of type — some boxes empty, others full or nearly so. - J
Case departmentThat portion of a printing office occupied by the compositors. - J
Case is fullWhen the case has been filled by distribution or laying of new type. - J
Case is lowWhen the type has been nearly all set out. - J
Case overseerThe foreman of the composing department. - J
Case racksReceptacles for holding cases when out of use — distinct from frame racks, which are used for cases in use. - J
Case runs overWhen the case has been over-filled. - J
Case workA term for publishers’ or cloth binding. - J
CasesAn expression generally applied to cloth book-covers. - J
Cases downWhen cases are out of use and taken down from the frame, the fact is thus expressed. - J
Cases upWhen cases are in use and up on the frame, the fact is thus expressed, in contradistinction to ‘‘cases down.’’ - J
CasingA size of brown paper, 46 × 36 inches. - J
Casing paperA machine-made paper which comes under the head of ‘‘browns’’ — used for wrapping purposes. - J
Caslon typeA term sometimes applied to the old-faced types cut by William Caslon. - J
Cassie paperOutside or broken paper was formerly thus spoken of. - J
CastGenerally applied to a stereotype cast. - J
Cast-iron chasesChases made by casting in an iron foundry. These, though cheaper than wrought iron, are rougher and more likely to be fractured if not carefully handled. - J
Cast-offTo calculate or estimate length of copy to be printed — a troublesome task in uneven and badly-written MS. - J
Casting-upTo measure the pages by means of ems and ens of its own body according to the existing scale of prices. - J
CatchesMade generally of brass, to hold stereo or electro-type plates on blocks. - J
CatchlineThe line which contains the ‘‘catchword’’ at the bottom of a page. - J
CatchwordA word placed at the bottom right-hand corner of pages in old books, indicating the first word on the following page. - J
Cater-corneredSheets of paper when not cut square. - J
CaxtonThe particular kind of Old English type used for composing books in that character. - J
Caxton casesCases of special lay for composing works in that character, by reason of the many ligatures. - J
Caxton machineA small platen jobbing machine worked by foot or by steam-power, made by Messrs. Furnival and Co., Stockport. - J
Cedilla CA French accent — thus, ç - J
CelluloidA composition made principally, it is said, of refuse from gun-cotton. Plates have been cast from type in this material, and as it is very hard it is admirably adapted for tint blocks. - J
Centred figuresSmall-faced figures cast centrally on a larger body, generally used in numbering lines for reference purposes in poetical works. - J
CertificateA guarantee of a limited number of copies only having been printed of any work, usually placed near the title-page. - J
ChaostypeA particular kind of type of a fantastic character. - J
Chapel moneyAn ancient custom of allowing pecuniary commission by the tradesmen to members of a chapel. A reprehensible practice nowadays, however. - J
Chapel rulesMost chapels, press or compositors’, have a set of rules for the guidance of their members. - J
ChapeloniansMembers of any chapel in a printing office. - J
ChapelsThe meetings held by the workmen to consider trade affairs, appeals, and other matters are thus termed. Derived, it is said, from Caxton’s connection with Westminster Abbey. - J
Chapter headsThe headings at the top of a chapter. - J
Chart paperA machine-made paper manufactured of best rags, specially adapted for charts and maps, being strong in texture and thin for folding purposes. - J
ChaseAn iron frame, cast or wrought, to hold the type for printing. - J
Chases (Varieties of)Several kinds, such as cast- or wrought-iron, folding, folio, quarto, jobbing, etc. - J
Check bookA tabulated book used by compositors to show at a glance the progress of a work, and also by which to check the composition and charges thereon. - J
Check screwA screw in the hand-press to regulate the length of pull. - J
CheeksThe upright sides of a printing press, between which the carriage or bed is run before pulling the bar over. - J
Chemical signsMarks of expression used in chemistry. - J
Cheque papersGenerally hand-made from best rags, and as a rule specially water-marked. - J
ChillAn elbow of steel immediately at the end of the press bar, which gives the impression by its being moved into a vertical position on the bar being pulled over. - J
Chinese paperA thin paper of very soft texture used by engravers to pull proofs on. Erroneously called ‘‘India’’ paper. - J
Chinese whiteA colourless pigment used for thinning or blending coloured inks. - J
ChokedAn expression used when the face of type gets filled up with ink and dirt, owing to bad washing and rinsing of formes. - J
Chopper onA person with a fit of ‘‘the blues’’ and intensely miserable is thus described. It is a slang expression sometimes used by printers. - J
Chromo-lithographyThe art of printing in colours by lithography. - J
ChromographA copying process by means of writing on a preparation of gelatine, etc., whereby a large number of copies may be printed. - J
Circled correctionsSpecial alterations made after the type has been corrected are generally encircled on the proof in order to call particular attention to them. - J
CirclesBrass rings cast hollow to allow of type being placed inside. - J
Circuit edgesBooks, generally bibles or prayer-books, are sometimes bound with the covers projecting and turned over to protect the edges. - J
Circular sawA revolving saw used for cutting up plates, furniture, etc. - J
CircularsThe class of small job work which includes letters, circulars, etc. - J
CircumflexAccented letters marked thus, â ê î ô û - J
City printing machineA single-cylinder machine made by Mr. Ingle. - J
ClarendonA bold or fat-faced type is generally thus described; the older founts were called ‘‘Egyptian.’’ - J
ClawThe tail of a sheepsfoot. - J
ClawsAnother name for the catches of stereotype blocks; usually made of brass, but sometimes of steel. - J
Clean proofA term used to discriminate between a foul or first proof and a proof ready to be sent out to a customer. - J
Clean sheetsSheets put aside as printed off to show progress of work and for editorial purposes. - J
Clean upTo clean or wipe up machinery when idle. - J
Clearing awayA term applied to express literally clearing away the type of a job or work after printing, i.e. to unlead, take headlines, etc., away, and tie up in pieces, preparatory to papering-up and storing. - J
Clearing pieTo separate and distribute broken or mixed type into their proper cases. - J
Clearing stoneAfter correcting a forme it is a rule in all well-ordered offices for the compositor to put away all stray letters and tools into their proper places. A fine is customary in some offices for breaking this rule. - J
Clerical errorsMistakes in copying MS. - J
Clerk of the chapelPractically the secretary of a chapel, who collects the subscriptions, etc. - J
ClicheFrench term for a cast, usually applied to stereo or electro duplicates. - J
ClickerThe compositor in charge of a companionship, who receives copy and instructions direct from the overseer or principal, and is responsible to his companions for the charging of the work done. - J
ClickingThe system of working in companionships under a clicker. - J
Close matterMatter with few breaks, and set solid, i.e. without leads. See ‘‘Lean’’ and ‘‘Solid dig.’’ - J
Close spacingBy this is meant spacing less than a thick space. Works not leaded should be rather more closely spaced than leaded ones. - J
Close workSee ‘‘Close matter.’’ - J
Closed apostrophesDouble apostrophes (’’) used to indicate the end of any quoted passage. - J
Closed officeA printing office closed to ‘‘society’’ hands. - J
Closed upWhen a compositor has been behindhand with his share of copy and his companions awaiting the completion, he is said to have ‘‘closed up’’ when finished. - J
ClosetThe counting-house is sometimes thus described, as is also the reading-room. See ‘‘The closet.’’ - J
Cloth boardsBooks when bound in cloth cases are described as being in ‘‘cloth boards.’’ - J
Cloth-faced paperPaper and cloth or linen pasted together, used especially for folding cards to prevent the score breaking. - J
Clothing rollersChanging the composition on worn-out rollers. - J
ClumpsMetal furniture, or pieces of metal used by stereo-typers, etc., chiefly to form the bevel of a plate. - J
Clymer pressAn iron hand-press called the Columbian made by Mr. Clymer of Philadelphia, who came to England in the early part of this century. - J
Co.Abbreviation of the word ‘‘colon,’’ used in the reading department. - J
Cobb paperA paper largely used by bookbinders for the sides of half-bound books. It is made in various shades of colour. - J
CockIn throwing or ‘‘jeffing’’ with quadrats as dice, when one lodges on top of another — thus lifting it partly off the surface thrown on — it is thus termed. Another throw is then allowed. - J
Cock-robin shopA small printing office where common work is done, and labour is badly paid for, is generally thus described. - J
Cock-upA superior figure or letter that does not range at bottom, and is used for contractions, thus ‘‘M ͬ.’’ or ‘‘A¹.’’ - J
CoffinThe carriage or bed of a cylindrical machine or platen press. - J
Cog-wheelsWheels with teeth for transmitting motion from one part of a machine to another. - J
Cogger’s pressAn old iron hand-press invented by Mr. T. Cogger in the early part of this century. - J
Cold pressingSheets pressed between glazed boards, usually, and more effectually, in a hydraulic press. - J
Cold rollingIn contradistinction to hot rolling — the rollers being made hot in the one instance, and in the other the rollers being in the natural state. - J
CollarA circular band fastened with nuts and screws to hold two lengths of shafting together. - J
CollateTo run through the sheets of a book to see if the signatures are in sequence. - J
ColombierA drawing paper, size 34½ × 23½ inches. - J
ColonA mark of punctuation : - J
ColophonAn inscription or tailpiece — usually a printer’s imprint — at the end of a book. - J
Colour printingPrinting in one or more colours than black is thus termed. - J
Coloured edgesThe edges of books when other than simply cut or gilt. - J
Columbian pressAn iron hand-press invented by Mr. Clymer of Philadelphia in the early part of this century. - J
Column galleyA metal galley used in newspaper work. - J
Column matterType set in two or more columns is thus described. - J
Column rulesRules used for dividing columns in double-columned work or newspapers. - J
ComAbbreviation of the word ‘‘comma,’’ used in the reading department. - J
Come inWhen copy is got into a given space it is said to ‘‘come in.’’ - J
Come offA sheet as printed is said to ‘‘come off’’ easily, or the reverse, if difficult to leave the forme by reason of heavy cuts. - J
CommaA mark of punctuation , - J
Commence turnsReversed double commas (‘‘) used to indicate the commencement of any quoted passage. - J
Commercial envelopesEnvelopes to take large post 8vo in three, 5½ × 3¼ inches. - J
Common pointsOrdinary points with a pin or spur attached, in contradistinction to ‘‘spring points,’’ etc. - J
CompAbbreviation for companion or compositor, much used by compositors. - J
CompanionsTwo men who work at a press are thus styled, as also the members of a companionship, or body of compositors working together under a clicker. - J
CompanionshipA number of compositors who work together under a clicker. - J
CompingA slang term for composing or setting type. - J
Complete fountA fount of type including capitals, small capitals, lower-case, figures, accents, spaces, etc., as distinct from ‘‘sorts.’’ - J
CompoAbbreviation for the roller composition. - J
ComposeTo set up type. - J
Composing machinesMechanical appliances for setting type. Various kinds have been invented from time to time with more or less success. - J
Composing room (or department)The portion of a printing office occupied by the compositors. - J
Composing ruleA brass rule, with a nose-piece, the length of the measure or width of the type being set up; it facilitates the composition in being shifted line by line. - J
Composing stickA tool or implement for setting type in, usually made of iron or gun-metal. Long sticks, such as are used for broadsides, are made of wood for lightness. - J
CompositionRollers made principally of glue and treacle. - J
CompositorA type-setter or composer of type. - J
Compositors’ rulesType measures or scales made of boxwood or ivory. - J
Compound wordsTwo words of equal grammatical value joined by a hyphen. - J
ConAbbreviation of the word ‘‘connection’’ used in the reading department. - J
Condensed letterThin and elongated founts of type are thus described. - J
ConditionRollers are said to be in or out of condition according to their merits. - J
Conditions of saleThe class of legal work embracing conditions and particulars of sale. - J
ConnectionIn passing sheets of a work finally for press the reader sees that the sequence from sheet to sheet is preserved, and not disturbed by any overrunning. - J
ContentsThat part of the preliminary matter which gives the ‘‘contents’’ and pagination of the various sections of a work. - J
ContractionsAbbreviations, or record sorts, indicated by accents over or through the letters. - J
Cope’s pressThis is the Albion iron hand-press invented by Mr. Cope. - J
Copper bronzeBronze powder made of copper used for printing purposes. - J
Copper-facedCasts — really electrotypes — are thus described, to distinguish them from stereotypes. - J
Copperplate printingThe art of intaglio printing from engraved copper-plates. - J
CopyThe manuscript or reprint copy from which the compositor composes. - J
Copy moneyIn olden times each compositor received a copy of the work he had been employed on, or a pecuniary reward. The custom is now obsolete. - J
Copy paperA writing paper, size 20 × 16 inches. - J
Copy’s outWhen the copy is all in hand, but not necessarily all composed, it is said to be ‘‘out.’’ - J
CopyholderThe reading ‘‘boy’’ in a newspaper office. - J
Copying paperA thin paper used for copying letters and accounts in commercial circles. - J
CopyrightThe rights held by publisher or author for a certain term of years in any original work. - J
Cording quiresThe outside quires of a ream, generally called ‘‘outsides.’’ - J
CoresMetal stereo blocks cast on girder-like sections to reduce weight of forme and economize metal. - J
CorksA slang expression sometimes used by printers to express money. - J
Corner ironsThe corner pieces of iron screwed on the corners of the bed or coffin of a press. - J
Corner-upA sheet or sheets when doubled up at the corners is said to be cornered up. - J
CornersAn ornament used for decorating the corner of a border in brass rule or otherwise. - J
Corners roundedCards are supplied with the corners rounded. - J
CorrectTo amend errors or make alterations in a proof. - J
Correcting nippersA pair of tweezers used for correcting type — especially handy for tabular work. - J
Correcting stoneThe surface on which a forme is laid to be corrected. See ‘‘Imposing stone.’’ - J
CorrectionsThe emendations or alterations made on a proof. - J
CorrectorAn ancient term for a reader, now called ‘‘corrector of the press,’’ the term used by the Readers’ Association. - J
CorrigendaPlural of ‘‘corrigendum’’ (Latin), corrections of errors, etc. - J
CorrigendumSingular of ‘‘corrigenda.’’ - J
Cotton wasteRefuse cotton used as ‘‘wipings’’ to clean machinery, etc. - J
CounterThe person responsible for the proper counting of all work as it is printed off. - J
Counter shaftingA smaller shaft connected with the main shaft in driving machinery. - J
Counting off copySee ‘‘Casting off.’’ - J
Court envelopesSquare envelopes to take large or small post 8vo in half, and termed respectively ‘‘large’’ or ‘‘small’’ court. - J
CrampedWhen matter is set close and insufficiently ‘‘whited out.’’ - J
CrankA long arm connected with a wheel or cam, with a backward or forward motion. - J
Cream-laidA writing paper showing the wire marks when held up. - J
Cream-woveA writing paper without wire marks — the reverse of ‘‘cream-laid.’’ - J
Creamy paperPaper with a slight tone is thus described. - J
CreswickA handmade drawing paper so called after the person of that name. - J
CroppedA book is said to be ‘‘cropped’’ when cut down too much. - J
CropperA short term for the ‘‘cropper’’ small printing platen machine. - J
Cropper machineAn American small treadle platen machine made by Mr. Cropper. The original one was the ‘‘Minerva.’’ - J
Cross-barsThe bars which divide chases into sections — fixed in cast chases, but generally movable in wrought ones. - J
CrossesThe cross-bars of chases are familiarly thus called. - J
CrotchetsAnother expression for brackets [or] somewhat out of date. - J
CrowdedWhen type is composed somewhat close or cramped it is said to be ‘‘crowded.’’ - J
CrownA size of printing paper, 20 × 15 inches. - J
CrystallotypyA process of producing artificial crystallized tint plates. - J
Cull paperTo examine and select the best of damaged paper. - J
Curly ñA term for the accented letter used in record work or in Spanish. - J
Currying ironsThese were used for currying the old ink balls, i.e. taking the moisture out of the ball. - J
Curvilinear platesSpecial stereo plates curved, cast, and bent for cylinder machines, as used for newspapers. - J
Custom of the houseCertain rules and regulations in vogue in any particular printing office. - J
Cut awayTo lower or cut away any particular part in a making-ready sheet. - J
Cut downAn expression used when paper is cut from one size to another. - J
Cut edgesA book which has been cut all round is said to have cut edges. - J
Cut formesFormes of illustrations, in contradistinction to ordinary formes of type or bookwork. - J
Cut outTo cut out an overlay, or cut away in a making-ready sheet. - J
Cut sizeAn indefinite or irregular size, not a recognized size of paper. - J
Cut the lineCompanionships ‘‘cut the line,’’ i.e. cease work, when there is insufficient to keep the whole ‘‘ship’’ going. - J
Cut upA warehouse expression for cutting up paper to certain sizes, such as used for jobs, i.e. 8vo, 4to, etc. - J
Cut-in letterA two-line or larger letter inserted at the commencement of a chapter. - J
Cut-in notesSide-notes which are inserted within the text at the side, instead of in the margin. - J
CutsThis is a colloquial expression for an illustration of any kind — electrotype, woodcut, or zincograph. - J
CutterThe person in the warehouse who does the cutting. - J
Cutting the frisketTo cut the printing portions of a forme out of the frisket. - J
Cutting-out knifeA sharp-pointed knife used in making ready. - J
Cylinder bearersThe sides of the coffin or bed of the machine, made of hard wood, type-high. - J
Cylinder galley pressA small press for pulling galley proofs by means of a heavy roller or cylinder pushed along by hand. - J
Cylinder machineA printing machine giving the impression by a cylinder instead of a platen. - J
Cylinder sheetsThe sheets pasted upon the cylinder which form the foundation of the making-ready. - J
Cylindrical ink tableAn ink table which revolves by a handle, and thus gives the ink to the roller, instead of braying out by the tool for the purpose. - J
DIs the third signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
DaggerA mark of reference used for foot- notes, thus † - J
DamperA door placed in the flue from the furnace to the upright shaft to regulate the draught. - J
DancesAn old expression applied when the spaces or quadrats rise in printing. - J
DandyThe wire frame or mould on which paper is made. - J
DashA mark used in punctuation, thus — technically called metal rule. - J
Dead languagesThe classical languages, which are not now generally spoken. - J
Decimo-sextoThe bibliographical term for sixteenmo — written shortly, 16mo. - J
DeckleThe raw, rough edge of paper in hand-mades is thus termed. - J
DeleTo omit or expunge, indicated thus δ. It is derived from the Latin. - J
DemyA size of printing paper, 22½ × 17½ inches; writing paper, 20 × 15½ inches. - J
Descending lettersThese are all those letters with down strokes, thus — p q y, etc. - J
Devil, printer’sAn odd lad for errands and other jobs — sometimes the junior apprentice is thus called. - J
DextrineA cheap substitute for gum. - J
DiamondThe type one size larger than Gem, and one size smaller than Pearl — equal to half a Bourgeois in body. - J
DiæresisAn accent mark over letters, thus — ä ë ï ö ü - J
Dictionary matterA class of composition which has a special price. - J
Die stampingThe art of stamping in relief, as used for note paper or envelopes. - J
DirectionThe corner word in the white line to indicate the first word on next page. See ‘‘Catchword.’’ - J
Direction lineThe bottom line in a page containing the catchword. - J
Dirty proofA proof-sheet with many corrections due to careless composition. - J
DisAbbreviation of the word ‘‘distribute.’’ - J
Display workType displayed, such as titles, headings, and jobbing work, is thus termed to distinguish it from ordinary solid composition. - J
DistributeTo replace the type in cases after printing. See ‘‘Dis.’’ - J
Distributing rollersThe rollers which take the ink from the vibrator communicating with the ductor. The rollers have a diagonal movement, and distribute the ink on the table. They are sometimes called ‘‘wavers.’’ - J
DivideTo separate a word at the end of a line with a hyphen. - J
DivisionSee ‘‘Divide.’’ - J
DivisoriumAn article used for holding copy on the case, which will allow of the copy being adjusted line by line to avoid ‘‘outs’’ or ‘‘doubles.’’ See ‘‘Visorum.’’ - J
Do upA general term for folding, stitching, and wrappering, or binding in cloth. - J
DocA slang term for the weekly bill, evidently a curtailment of ‘‘document.’’ - J
Dog’s-earedWhen the corners of a ream of paper are curled or knocked up. - J
Dollar markA sign used in American currency, thus $ - J
Donkey engineA small and subsidiary engine apart from the main one. - J
DonkeysCompositors were at one period thus styled by pressmen in retaliation for being called ‘‘pigs’’ by them. - J
Doric fountA particular kind of sans-serif type used for display work. - J
Dotted lettersSpecial letters cast with a dot above, thus — ȧ ė i̇ ȯ u̇ etc. - J
Dotted quadratsDots or full-points cast on quadrats, generally called ‘‘leaders,’’ thus … … used for contents or table matter to run out to figures. - J
Dotted ruleBrass rule with the face dotted, used for filling up blanks, receipt forms, etc., and to serve as a guide for writing on, thus ............. - J
DoubleWords repeated in composition by error, necessitating overrunning; also used by pressmen when a sheet is pulled twice or mackled. - J
Double broadFurniture eight picas in width — double the width of ‘‘broad.’’ - J
Double casesCases specially made upper and lower case in one, used for small jobbing founts. - J
Double columnsMatter set in two columns. - J
Double crownA size of printing paper, 30 × 20 inches. - J
Double daggerA reference mark for foot-notes, thus ‡ - J
Double demyA size of printing paper, 35 × 22½ inches. - J
Double foolscapA size of printing paper, 27 × 17 inches; writing paper, 26½ × 16⅝ inches. - J
Double four poundA size of brown paper, 31 × 22 inches. - J
Double frameA frame to hold two pairs of cases up at one time. - J
Double imperialA size of printing paper, 44 × 30 inches. - J
Double imperial capA size of brown paper, 44 × 29 inches. - J
Double large cardsA size of jobbing card, cut 6 × 4½ inches. - J
Double large postA size of writing paper, 33 × 21 inches. - J
Double mediumA size of printing paper, 38 × 24 inches. - J
Double narrowFurniture six picas in width — double the width of a narrow. - J
Double picaThe name of a fount one size larger than Paragon, and one size smaller than Two-line Pica — its body is two Small Picas in depth. - J
Double pica regletWooden furniture of that depth in body. - J
Double postA size of printing paper, usually 32 × 20 inches. - J
Double pottA size of printing paper, 25½ × 17 inches. - J
Double rollingThe action of twice rolling a forme in printing by means of a throw-off impression in a machine. - J
Double royalA size of printing paper, 40 × 25 inches. - J
Double ruleRules which are cast with two lines on the face — both in brass and in type metal. - J
Double small cardsA size of jobbing card, cut 3½ × 5 inches. - J
Double small postA size of writing paper, 30½ × 19 inches. - J
Double super royalA size of printing paper, 41 × 27½ inches. - J
Drachm markA medical sign, thus Æ· - J
DragWhen a shake or slur is on a printed sheet it is said to ‘‘drag.’’ - J
DrawWhen through bad justification the letters draw out on the roller in inking the forme. - J
DrawingLifting lines from a page or forme for a second printing in another colour — the blank space being filled with its equivalent. - J
Drawing paperA paper, generally hand-made, manufactured of the finest material and well sized. - J
Drawing paper reamsThese papers are usually done up 472 sheets to a mill ream, with outsides — if all good sheets, that is insides, 480. - J
Drawn sheetsUsed to indicate sheets drawn in collating gathered books, through carelessness in gathering two or three sheets at a time instead of one. - J
Dress a formeTo put furniture round and quoin up a forme, preparatory to pulling a proof. - J
Dressing blockAn obsolete term for the present planer. - J
DriersA preparation used for increasing the drying properties of inks. - J
Dripping panA tin tray under the ribs of the press to catch the surplus oil. - J
Drive outTo widely space matter. See ‘‘Get in.’’ - J
Driving bandThe strap or band which imparts motion to a machine. - J
Driving shaftThe shaft which imparts motion, through the medium of the strap, to a machine. - J
Dropped headChapter or first pages driven down at the top are thus called. - J
Dropping outWhen, owing to long standing or the prevalence of hot weather, the quoins of a forme get loose and the pages drop out of the chase. - J
DrumAnother term for the ‘‘cylinder’’ of a printing machine. - J
Dry upA slang term for leaving off work or leaving a situation. - J
Dryden machineA perfecting printing machine manufactured by a firm of that name. - J
Duck’s billA substitute for pins in a tympan, made by cutting a tongue in a piece of thick paper or card. - J
DuctAbbreviation of the word ‘‘ductor.’’ - J
DuctorA reservoir which holds the ink in a printing machine, the supply from it being regulated for each impression. - J
Ductor keysScrews placed in the ductor to regulate the amount of ink to be given to each impression. - J
Ductor knifeThe long thin plate which regulates the amount of ink given out for every impression. - J
DuodecimoCommonly called twelvemo, a sheet of paper folded into twelve leaves, written shortly, 12mo. - J
Duplex cardsPasteboards, the two surfaces of different colours. - J
Duplex paperPaper with the two sides of different colours, made by colouring each side separately. - J
Dutch papersVan Gelder’s handmade paper of various sizes, made in Holland. - J
DwellThe stationary period while a sheet is being impressed on the type or forme — a long ‘‘dwell’’ is a good point in a machine. - J
EIs the fourth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
Ear of the frisketThe thumb-piece used in turning down the frisket on the tympan. - J
Easy pullA soft or easy pull over of the handle of a press. - J
Eccentric motionA movement of irregular action which acts on a certain part of a machine at a particular moment in an evolution. - J
EcclesiasticA particular fount of type of black letter or church text character. - J
Edges bevelledCards or book-covers with the edges bevelled to any degree. - J
Edges cutA book or pamphlet cut down sufficiently to make all the edges quite smooth. - J
Edges giltBook edges cut and gilded. - J
Edges openedA book or pamphlet opened with a paper knife by hand. - J
Edges redBook edges cut and coloured red. - J
Edges roundedBooks are sometimes bound with the corners rounded to prevent them becoming ‘‘dog’s-eared.’’ - J
Edges trimmedA book or pamphlet with the edges just cut to make them tidy, but not sufficiently to open the leaves. - J
Edges untouchedA book or pamphlet with edges uncut or unopened. - J
Edition de luxeFrench colloquialism for the large paper editions issued of first-class books. - J
EgyptianA fat and ugly-faced kind of type. There is nowadays a larger and more graceful selection of these fancy types to be chosen from. - J
Eight to pica brassBrass rule cast eight to a pica in thickness. - J
Eight to pica leadsLeads cast eight to a pica; also called ‘‘thin’’ leads. - J
EighteenmoA sheet folded into eighteen leaves. See ‘‘Octodecimo,’’ written shortly, 18mo. - J
Eighteenmo chasesChases with the cross-bars divided into four unequal sections to allow of the off-cut. - J
EightsA familiar term used by compositors for octavo. - J
Elbow pointPress points made upon an elbow for convenience in pointing twelve or eighteenmo works. - J
ElectrotypingThe art of duplicating woodcuts, etc., by a thin galvanic deposit of copper, afterwards backed up by ordinary metal similar to that used by type, but not so hard. - J
ElephantA size of printing paper, 30 × 23 inches; writing or drawing paper, 28 × 23 inches; brown paper, 34 × 24 inches. - J
ElongatedA thin and condensed form of fancy display type. - J
ElzevirsA class of books named after the eminent Dutch printers of the seventeenth century. - J
Em quadsA quadrat cast one em square to any particular body. - J
Em rulesRules cast on an em of any particular body — a dash, or metal rule. - J
Embossed printingRaised printing instead of the ordinary indented printing — such as die stamping. - J
Embossing pressA machine for raised or embossed stamping. - J
EmeraldThe name of a fount one size larger than Nonpareil and one size smaller than Minion — equal to half an English in body. - J
Emery clothUsed for burnishing the bright parts of machinery. - J
EmperorA size of writing or drawing paper, 72 × 48 inches. - J
Empire machineA small platen machine made by Messrs. Powell and Co. - J
EmptiedWhen a composing stick or galley is full, and the type is lifted out of the stick or off the galley, it is said to be emptied. - J
Empty caseA case with the type nearly all set out. - J
Empty pressAn unemployed press — that is, one standing idle. - J
En quadsSpaces two to an em of any particular body. - J
En rulesRules cast on an en of any particular body. - J
Enamelled cardsCards made with a very high surface by being enamelled on one or both sides. - J
Enamelled paperPaper with a specially prepared surface. - J
Encircled correctionsSpecial or ‘‘after’’ corrections made in a proof, and encircled in order to distinguish them from the corrections first made. - J
End at a breakTo finish in composing at the end of a paragraph. - J
End evenTo finish off copy in composing at the end of a line — a plan adopted in order to expedite composition by giving out short ‘‘takes.’’ - J
End leavesThe blank flyleaves at either end of a book. - J
End papersSee ‘‘End leaves.’’ - J
Endless paperPaper in reels — not in sheets — used for printing on rotary machines. - J
EndorseThe outside endorsement of a prospectus or legal document, when folded. - J
Engine-sized paperPaper sized in process of manufacture, distinct from hand or tub-sized. - J
EnglishThe name of a type one size larger than Pica and one size smaller than Great Primer — equal to two Emeralds in body. - J
English faceAn old term for Old English or black letter. - J
Equal markA sign used in arithmetic, thus = - J
Equivalent weights of paperThe diiference in weight between two sizes to compensate for a larger or smaller sheet. - J
ErrataA number of mistakes usually printed on a small slip and pasted in by the bookbinder. The word is the Latin equivalent for ‘‘errors.’’ - J
ErratumThe singular of ‘‘errata.’’ - J
ErrorsBlunders in composition, or marks of corrections in proofs. - J
EstablishmentA workman on weekly wages is said to be on the ‘‘establishment.’’ See ‘‘’Stab.’’ - J
Even foliosThe pagination of left-hand pages, — 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc. are said to be ‘‘even folios.’’ - J
Even pagesThe even numbers in paging, or left-hand pages of a work. See ‘‘Even folios.’’ - J
Exhaust pipeThe pipe which conveys away the waste steam. - J
Exhaust SteamWaste or spent steam is thus termed. - J
ExpandedA fancy type of extended character — the reverse of condensed. - J
ExtendedAnother term for expanded letter. - J
ExtrasThe charges involved on composition over and above the fixed price per sheet of the text type, generally charged at the end of a work. - J
Eyletting machineA machine for punching and inserting the eylets in showcards, etc. - J
FIs the fifth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
F. p.Abbreviation for ‘‘fine paper,’’ that is, a better edition. - J
Face of a letterThe surface of a letter — that which is imprinted on the paper. - J
Faced ruleBrass rule with the ordinary thin face somewhat thickened. - J
FacsimAbbreviation of the word ‘‘facsimile.’’ - J
FacsimileTo imitate exactly in reprinting — applied generally to reprints of old works. - J
Fair officesA term applied to those printing offices where the recognized scale of prices is paid. - J
Falling outThe quoins of formes which have been long standing in chase are apt to shrink, especially in hot weather, and cause the type to ‘‘fall out.’’ - J
Fancy rulesRules other than plain ones of various designs — some short, as used between sections, and border rules. - J
Fancy typesFounts of type of various kinds used for jobbing purposes. - J
FanningIn order to count paper it is necessary to open the edges by grasping with the thumb and forefinger two or three quires, and to turn the same over by a sharp turn of the wrist. - J
FatWell-leaded, open, or good paying work for piece hands. Sometimes vulgarly called ‘‘grease.’’ - J
Fat faceA broad or fat-faced character of type. - J
FatherShort term for ‘‘father of the chapel.’’ - J
Father of the chapelThe person who presides at the printers’ chapel. - J
Feed pipeThe pipe which feeds the boiler with water direct from the cistern. - J
FeederThe lad who lays on the sheets in a printing machine. - J
Feet of a pressThe bottom of the legs of a press resting on the ground. - J
Feint rulingVery light and thin lines used in account ruling. - J
Fellow-compA term of fellowship applied by one compositor to another. - J
Fellow-P.Apprentices to the same firm or master. - J
FenceA guard or railing round dangerous machinery or bands. - J
Filigree letterAn initial letter with a filigree background. - J
Filling inPutting the sheets, after printing and drying, between glazed boards previous to pressing. - J
Fine pressworkA term applied to the better class of handwork in printing. - J
FingersThe grippers which hold the paper in printing on a machine. - J
Fire barsThe bars which form the bottom of a furnace. They are renewable when worn out by the heat. - J
Fire doorThe door of a furnace to a boiler. - J
Fire eaterAn old term for a rapid setter of type. - J
FiringA press or machine is said to be ‘‘firing’’ when friction is caused from want of lubrication. - J
FirstThe senior or leading partner of the two men who work at a hand-press. - J
First formeThe inner or outer of a forme — whichever is printed off first. - J
First pageThe outside or first page of any printed sheet - that which contains the signature. - J
First proofThe first pull of a forme after composing, which is read for the first time by the copy. See ‘‘Foul proof.’’ - J
FistA slang expression for an index mark, thus ☞ sometimes called ‘‘mutton-fist.’’ - J
Five-em spaces‘‘Thin’’ spaces, cast five to the em of any particular body. - J
FlatAn expression used to indicate excessive flatness in an illustration owing to want of light and shade in overlaying. - J
Flat paperPaper sent in in reams not folded or quired. - J
Flat pull (or impression)A simple proof without under or overlaying. - J
FlexibleA term used in giving directions to a binder for sewing or binding in that style. - J
FliesAutomatic takers-off on a machine; sometimes called ‘‘flyers.’’ - J
FlimsyThin paper, such as bank paper, telegraph forms, etc., is thus termed in printers’ slang. - J
FlongThe prepared paper used for making the moulds for casting stereo by the paper process. - J
Floor PieTypes that have been dropped Upon the floor during the operations of composition or distribution. A careful compositor will pick up each type as he drops it, and thus prevent its being battered by being trodden upon. It is the duty of the person sweeping the composing-room, before watering it, to pick up the floor-pie in each frame separately, and place it, wrapped in paper, in the thick-space box of the case in use by the compositor occupying that frame, who should clear it away every morning before commencing work. Types that are picked up around the imposing-stone and other parts of the room are called "House Pie," and should be cleared away at once either by the quoin-drawer overseer or by the compositors generally in turns.  - S
FlowersOrnaments for making borders to jobs, cards, pages, and wrappers, and for embellishing chapter headings, or forming tail-pieces to books. It is a typefounder's phrase for what printers usually term Borders. In the early days of the typographic art borders were chiefly composed of floral designs; whereas at the present time they assume a variety of shapes, some of which are truly artistic.  - S
FlyThe taker-off on a machine is sometimes thus termed. - J
Fly-titleThe half-title in front of the general title, or which divides sections of a work. - J
Fly-wheelA wheel which gives impetus to an engine or machine. - J
FlyersTaking-off apparatus attached to a printing machine. - J
Flying a frisketThe process of turning up or down the tympan when printing at a hand-press. - J
FlyleafA blank leaf not printed on. - J
Fol.Abbreviation for the word ‘‘folio’’ frequently used by booksellers in their catalogues. - J
Folded paperPaper which is done up in reams folded in half, or quired — not flat. - J
FolderThe bone implement used for folding in the warehouse. - J
FoldersThe hands in a warehouse who do the folding. - J
Folding chasesChases made in pairs or quadruple for facilitating the printing of large sheets, such as newspapers, on a machine. - J
Folding stickThe bone stick used in folding. See ‘‘Folder.’’ - J
FolioA sheet of paper folded in two leaves only. - J
Folio chaseA chase with one bar only. - J
FoliosThis term is applied to the enumeration of pages. - J
FollowTo see that sheets in a gathered book are in sequence. Also used in other departments — by a compositor to see that copy ‘‘follows’’ or a pressman in perfecting to see that his folios ‘‘follow.’’ - J
FollowersThe following sheets after a heading — such as the ordinary plain-ruled paper used after the title-head of a long invoice. - J
FoolscapA size of printing paper, 17 × 13½ inches; writing paper, 16¾ × 13½ inches. - J
Foot of a letterThe bottom of the shank of a type; usually grooved to prevent it wearing round. - J
Foot of the pageThe bottom portion of a page. - J
FootlineThe bottom line in a page. - J
FootstepThe inclined footstool the pressman puts his foot on when pulling the bar over. - J
FootStickA bevelled stick put at the bottom of a page or pages to quoin up against. See ‘‘Sidestick.’’ - J
Fore-edgeThe outer side edge of a book, distinct from head or tail, when folded. - J
Forestay of pressThe leg which supports the frame or ribs of a hand-press. - J
ForksReceptacles which hold the spindles of machine rollers. - J
Forme (or form)Pages of type when imposed in a chase constitute a ‘‘forme.’’ - J
Forme carriageA small trolley on two wheels for moving formes about. - J
Forme dancesWhen, a forme being locked-up on the imposing surface, any of the lines are not properly justified, or letters have slipped at the ends of lines, or when a letter, space, or quadrat of a deeper body is by accident made use of, the forme will not lift properly. To ascertain this, the compositor raises the forme slightly and quickly two or three times, when if any of the above irregularities have occurred, he will hear a clicking sound near the imperfect justification, caused by the loose types dancing on the “stone”. Pressmen use the same term when a new roller finds out any loose lines n the forme, and causes the types, as some say, to “chatter.” - S
Forme gaugeGauge used for measuring margins of formes. - J
Forme hookA hook used for fishing small formes out of the lye trough. - J
Forme liftA lift to carry formes from floor to floor. - J
Forme liftsWhen, on being raised from the stone or press nothing drops out.  - S
Forme racksRacks made for holding formes in a perpendicular position. - J
Forme trolleySee ‘‘Forme carriage.’’ - J
FortnightA familiar term amongst printers to express notice to leave a situation — a fortnight’s notice being the recognized custom on either side. - J
Forty-eightmoA sheet of paper folded into forty-eight leaves — written shortly, 48mo. - J
FortymoA sheet of paper folded into forty leaves — written shortly, 40mo. - J
Foul proofA proof distinct from a clean proof. - J
Foul StoneIf type or tools are left on the stone or im posing surface. See ‘‘Clear the stone.’’ - J
FounderShort term for the letter or type-founder. - J
Foundry chasesSmall chases used for imposing pages in convenient quantities for stereotyping or electrotyping. - J
Foundry clumpsPieces of metal type-high placed round pages chiefly to form the bevel of the plate when cast. - J
Foundry proofThe final proof before stereotyping or electrotyping which is generally supplied to the foundry. - J
FountThis term is applied to the whole number of letters constituting a complete fount of any particular class of face or body. - J
Fount case rackLarge racks made specially for holding these cases in. - J
Fount casesCases of a larger kind than usual, for holding surplus sorts. - J
Fount of letterA complete fount of type consists of capitals, small capitals, lower-case, figures, accents, points, spaces, etc. - J
Fount of typeSee ‘‘Fount of letter.’’ - J
Four onAn expression used in jobbing work where the job is printed quadruple to economize working. - J
Four setSee ‘‘Four on.’’ - J
Four to pica brassBrass rule made four to a pica in thickness. - J
Four to pica leadsLeads cast four to a pica — generally called ‘‘thick leads.’’ - J
Four-em bracesBraces cast on four ems of any particular body. - J
Four-em quadsLarge quadrats cast to four ems of any particular body. - J
Four-em spaces‘‘Middling’’ spaces, cast four to the em of any particular body. - J
FoursA familiar term used by compositors for ‘‘quarto.’’ - J
Fourteen-to-pica leadsVery thin leads cast fourteen to a pica. - J
FoxedPaper or books stained or mouldy are said to be ‘‘foxed.’’ - J
FractionsFractional figures cast on single types. They are sometimes cast on half bodies, and then called ‘‘split fractions.’’ - J
FracturGerman expression for their text or black letter characters. - J
FragmentsThe odd pages at the commencement and end of a work — now usually called ‘‘oddments.’’ - J
FrameThe wooden stand on which cases are placed to compose from, and usually made with racks in which to place cases. - J
Frame bedThe shelf at the lower portion of the frame. - J
Frame drawerA drawer attached to the frame to hold copy, etc. - J
Frame rackA rack attached to the frame for cases not in immediate use. - J
Franklin pressAn American small jobbing platen machine. - J
French metal blocksThe metal mounting cores or risers used for stereotype plates. - J
French metal furnitureMetal furniture used in place of wooden — originally a French idea. - J
French pinsSmall wire nails or brads used for fastening plates to blocks. - J
French rulesShort ornamental rules of either brass or type metal are generally thus designated. - J
French stereo blocksSee ‘‘French metal blocks.’’ - J
French typeThe nicks on these founts are placed on the back instead of the front. - J
FrenchmanA perfecting machine originally of French make, but improved by English manufacturers, and now called Anglo-French machine. - J
Fresh paragraphTo begin a fresh sentence at the commencement of a line by indentation. - J
Fresh rollersRollers when too new are said to be ‘‘fresh.’’ - J
FretWhen rollers crack or peel they are said to ‘‘fret.’’ - J
FriarA light or broken patch in a printed sheet. - J
FrisketA thin iron frame joined to the tympan. Its object is to prevent the sheet being dirtied or blackened, by pasting a sheet over the frame and cutting out only the parts to be printed. - J
Frisket buttonA button on the sides of the tympan. - J
Frisket jointsThe parts which connect, usually with a pin, the frisket to the tympan. - J
Frisket pinsThe pins which fasten the frisket to the tympan. - J
Frisket stayA wooden stop fastened to the ceiling to pre vent the frisket flying too far back. - J
Front marksThe lay marks on the board nearest the grippers. - J
FrontispieceThe illustration facing the title-page of a work. - J
Frozen outAn old term used when the workmen were hindered working through extreme cold. This is now obviated by warming the offices with steam or hot water. - J
FudgeTo make shift with anything — a botch. - J
Fugitive coloursA class of coloured inks which are not permanent in tone, and change or fade on exposure. - J
FullShort term used in the reading department for ‘‘full- point’’ or ‘‘full-stop.’’ - J
Full boundA term sometimes used to define a book wholly bound in leather. - J
Full caseA case well filled with type. - J
Full colourWhen ample ink has been used in printing. - J
Full formeA forme distinct from a ‘‘broken,’’ or one with blank pages in. - J
Full frameA compositor in a regular situation is said to have a ‘‘full frame.’’ - J
Full measureType composed the full width, and not in half measure or columns. - J
Full pageA page distinct from a short one. - J
Full pointTechnical name for a period or ‘‘full stop’’ — a mark of punctuation. - J
Full pressWhen two men work at a press as partners. - J
Full stopA mark of punctuation, technically called a ‘‘lull point.’’ - J
Full-faced letterA fount of capitals which has no beard on the top of the shank, occupying the whole depth of the body. - J
FurnitureThe wood used in making margin for a printed sheet, the thinner kind being usually called ‘‘Reglet.’’ Sometimes French metal furniture is used. - J
Furniture (Sizes of)Double broad, double narrow, broad, narrow, etc. - J
Furniture gaugeThe gauge used in measuring the furniture of a forme before sending it to press. - J
GIs the sixth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
G. H.Is a printer’s slang term to express his previous knowledge of a fact. - J
G. I.A printer’s slang expression for ‘‘general indulgence,’’ such as celebrating a birthday or an apprentice ‘‘coming out of his time.’’ - J
G. M.A slang abbreviation for ‘‘general manager’’ of a printing office. - J
GalleyThese are wooden or zinc receptacles for holding type before making-up into pages. - J
Galley pressA small hand-press for pulling proofs in slip form — sometimes of cylindrical make. - J
Galley rackReceptacles for galleys. - J
Galley slavesAn old term applied to compositors — the reason being obvious. - J
Galley sticksLong side-sticks used for quoining up galleys. - J
GallowsA frame used for supporting the tympans of the old wooden presses when turned up. - J
Garter of pressA part of the old wooden press used in connection with the bar-handle in raising the platen after an impression was taken. - J
Gas engineA motor propelled by gas of different man or horse powers. - J
Gather correctionsFor facilitating corrections in a forme, compositors collect in their fingers the various and necessary letters required for the alterations. - J
GatheringWhen a volume is wholly printed off, the sheets after drying and pressing are gathered in single copies of complete books; in half-sheet work there would be two copies on. - J
Gathering tableA table, usually arranged horse-shoe shape, where the different sheets of a volume are laid down for gathering into books. Circular revolving tables are sometimes used, the gatherer standing in one position and taking a sheet off as the table revolves. - J
GaugeA gauge to regulate length of page or margins. See ‘‘Page gauge,’’ and ‘‘Furniture gauge.’’ - J
Gauge glassesThe glass tubes on the front of boilers to indicate the height of the water in the boiler. - J
GemA size of type one size larger than Brilliant and one size smaller than Diamond. - J
Gentlemen’s cardA size of card, 3x1½ inches. Also called ‘‘thirds’’ (a third of a ‘‘large’’ card). - J
Geometrical signsSpecial characters relating to geometry. - J
GermanThe particular character of type — somewhat similar to black letter — used for composing books in the German language. See ‘‘Practur.’’ - J
German casesThese are cases of a special lay for founts used in composing this language. - J
German-silver sticksComposing sticks are sometimes made of this alloy. - J
Get inTo set matter closely spaced. - J
Get upThis is an expression used as an order, i.e. to ‘‘get up’’ or compose certain copy. - J
Gets inA term used when matter makes less than anticipated. - J
Gill’s machineA hot-rolling machine much used at the present time for drying and pressing work as it is printed off — thus greatly expediting delivery. - J
Gilt edgesBooks or cards with gilded edges are thus described. - J
Gilt topsBooks usually on hand-made paper are sometimes bound with the top edges cut and gilt, thus preventing them being soiled by the dust that would otherwise collect if they were left rough. - J
Girth wheelThe drum on which the girthing winds in the running in or out of the press carriage. - J
GirthingA kind of webbing regulating the running in and out of the carriage of a press. - J
Glazed boardsMillboards, very hard and highly rolled, used for pressing printed sheets in the warehouse. - J
Gloss inksInks of various colours having a very glossy appearance when dry. - J
GodsThe nine quadrats used in throwing or ‘‘jeffing’’ by compositors. - J
Gold bronzeVery fine powder used in gold-printing. It is dusted on after the forme is printed with a preparation specially made for the purpose. - J
Gold edgesAnother term for ‘‘Gilt edges,’’ which see. - J
Gold leafGold beaten into very thin leaves — occasionally used for printing purposes, but more particularly for the decoration of book covers. - J
Gold printingIn letterpress printing any work executed in gold by the bronze process. - J
Good colourWhen the ink is properly applied to a sheet — neither too much nor too little — but of a good and even depth. - J
Good copyPlain, legible, and straightforward MS. or reprint. Applied to ‘‘fat’’ copy also. - J
Good matterComposed type not printed, or ordered to be kept standing with a view to reprinting. - J
Good of the chapelFines and dues which are collected for the chapel fund — to be disbursed as voted by the chapel. - J
GoosePrinters’ abbreviation for ‘‘wayzgoose,’’ or beanfeast. - J
Gordon pressA small treadle platen machine made by Messrs. Powell and Son. - J
Got upAn expression used to indicate that type is all used or copy is all composed. - J
GothicAn antique character of type similar to black letter. - J
GovernorA synonym for the master or head of the establishment. - J
Governor of engineThe two balls on an engine which check the supply of steam to the cylinder. - J
Grammar matterThis is a class of composition paid for by a particular scale of prices. - J
Graph processesThe different kinds of printing from a transfer laid on gelatine or glue, such as the ‘‘papyrograph.’’ - J
Graphic machineA single cylinder machine so named because first used for the ‘‘Graphic’’ newspaper. - J
Grass handA compositor temporarily engaged — a practice common in newspaper offices. - J
GrassingA compositor taking occasional jobs, or assisting on a newspaper. - J
Grave accentA sign over a letter, thus à - J
GreaseA slang expression for the more technical one of ‘‘fat,’’ i.e. good work. - J
Great numbersLong working numbers in printing were thus called. - J
Great PrimerA size of type one size larger than English and one size smaller than Paragon, equalling two Bourgeois. - J
Great Primer regletWooden furniture of that depth in body. - J
GreekThe particular character of type used for works in the Greek language. - J
Greek casesThese are cases of special lay for composing works in that language — the upper case being especially complicated by reason of the many accents required. - J
GripperThe fingers which grip a sheet in printing on a machine. - J
Gripper machinesMachines which use fingers or grippers for laying on the sheets, in contradistinction to machines with other contrivances for laying on, such as the ‘‘Web.’’ - J
GrooveThe groove in the short bar of a chase to allow of the pointing of a sheet at press. - J
GuardThe fence or railing round a dangerous piece of machinery. - J
GuardedBooks are said to be ‘‘guarded’’ when the plates are mounted or sewn on guards instead of being stitched or pasted in the ordinary way. - J
Guillotine cutting machineA machine made for cutting paper on the ‘‘Guillotine’’ principle. - J
GullIf points are blunt or thick and tear the point-hole on the sheet, they are said to be ‘‘gulled.’’ - J
Gummed paperPaper in various colours or sizes ready gummed is sold by most stationers. - J
Gun-metal shooting stickLocking-up sticks are sometimes tipped with gun-metal to render them more durable. - J
GutterThe ‘‘back’’ margin or furniture of a sheet. This is the part of a sheet which when folded falls in the back of the book. - J
Gutter sticksAn old term for the back or gutter furniture. - J
HIs the seventh signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
Hair leadsVery thin leads — mostly sixteen to a pica — rarely used nowadays. - J
Hair spacesVery thin spaces, used mostly for spacing out the letters in headlines of pages. - J
Hair-line letterVery thin-faced type, generally used for letterings of mounts. - J
Half boundBooks partly bound in leather, with cloth or paper sides. - J
Half casesSmall cases used for jobbing purposes. - J
Half frameSmall composing frames made to hold one pair of cases only. - J
Half large cardsA size of card, 3 × 2¼ inches. - J
Half plate paperMachine-made paper of fine and soft texture used for woodcuts. - J
Half pressWhen instead of two one man only is working at a press. - J
Half tintsA term applied to the parts of an illustration of partial depth. - J
Half-sheetBook-work is sometimes printed in ‘‘half-sheet’’ fashion. When thus printed there are two copies on one sheet. - J
Half-titleThe sub-title in front of the full title. - J
HammerThe tool used by pressmen or machine-minders for locking-up the formes on the bed or coffin. - J
HammeringA slang term used to express the overcharging of work done, especially when on time work. - J
HandThis term is applied to press work in contradistinction to machine work. - J
Hand rollerApplied to the press roller used by machineminders in pulling a proof to obviate running up colour with the machine rollers. - J
Hand-made paperPaper made entirely by hand — a slow and tedious process — used chiefly for editions de luxe. - J
Hand-made reamsThese generally run 480 sheets to a ream — occasionally 500, or even 516. - J
HandbillsA common class of jobbing work which comprises circulars or letters. - J
HandleApplied to both the ‘‘bar’’ and ‘‘rounce.’’ handle. - J
Hang it outA slang expression used by printers to denote skulking. - J
Hang offA slang term sometimes used by printers to express avoidance or indifference. - J
Hang upTo hang printed work upon poles for drying. - J
HangerAn iron bracket attached to the ceiling to hold shafting. - J
Hanging galleyA small galley with hooks to hang on the upper case. - J
HangsType is said to hang when it is not squarely locked-up and the corners droop. It is also caused by pages being improperly gauged. - J
Hard impressionToo much ‘‘pull’’ on the forme, but sometimes necessary for certain classes of work by reason of paper, etc. - J
Hard inkInk when too much boiled is thus designated. - J
Hard packingAn American system of making ready for printing dry paper. - J
Hard paperPaper of hard texture, different from plate paper or ‘‘soft’’ paper. - J
Hard pullWhen the bar of the press goes stiffly it is said to be a hard pull. - J
Hard sized paperPaper more than ordinarily sized — writing papers are thus made. - J
Hatton machineA small treadle platen machine made by Messrs. J. Richmond and Co. - J
Haven capA size of brown paper, 26 × 21 inches. - J
HeadThe top part of a press, or the top part of a page. - J
Head pageThe first or ‘‘dropped’’ page of a book, or a chapter or section thereof. - J
Head ruleThe rule sometimes used after a headline. - J
Heading chasesOblong chases used for imposing the headings of account books, etc. - J
HeadlineThe top line or heading of the page which runs throughout the book. - J
HeadpiecesOrnamental headings to pages, placed at the commencement of a book or chapter. - J
HeadsA term applied to the margin of books at the top of the page. - J
HeadsticksAn old term for the head furniture. - J
HeapA working or pile of paper, printed or not printed. - J
HebrewThe particular character of type used for composing books in that language. - J
Hebrew casesCases of special lay used for composing books in that language. - J
Height to paperA general expression to denote the height of type. French type is slightly higher than English, consequently its ‘‘height to paper’’ is greater. Worn type is ‘‘low to paper.’’ - J
Hell boxA receptacle for battered or broken letters — in olden times a boot was used. - J
Herculean rule cutterA small but very strong cutting machine for rules or leads. - J
HighType or blocks which stand higher than the rest of the forme. New type would stand higher than that worn. - J
High quadratsSee ‘‘High spaces.’’ - J
High spacesSpaces specially cast nearly type-high. They are used in plaster stereotyping mostly for cleanliness. - J
Hind parts of pressThe supports at the end of the ribs which hold that part up. - J
Hither cheekThe side of the cheek which is nearest the pressman as he works. - J
Hoarding sortsTo hide any particular or scarce letter of a fount in use. - J
Hoe machinesMachines of various patterns made by Messrs. Hoe and Co. of New York. - J
Hoe platen machineA machine made by Messrs. Hoe and Co. of New York. - J
Holds outA term used if paper or type is of ample quantity. - J
HoleAn ancient term for a private or unlicensed printing office. - J
Hollow QuadratsThese are cast of various sizes, graduated to Pica ems. They answer many of the purposes of quotations, but are principally useful as frames or miniature chases for circular or oval jobs.  - S
Holyrood paperA particular kind of laid writing paper. - J
Hook downThe end of a line turned over, and bracketed in the line below. - J
Hook inIn almanack matter, etc., when the words are too many to come into the line they are hooked up or down. - J
Hook upThe end of a line turned over, and bracketed in the line above. - J
Horizontal engineA motor the reverse of a vertical one. - J
HornbeamA very hard wood used for bearers, etc. - J
HorseAn inclined stage set on the bank to hold the heap which has to be printed. - J
Horse-powerThe driving power of engines is determined by horse-power. - J
HorsefleshAn old expression for the more modern one of ‘‘horse,’’ which see. - J
When composition is paid for, week after week, “on account” — that is, instead of the exact value of the work done being estimated, a rough approximate sum is charged — there is always a tendency to “overdraw.” At the finish of the job and the settling up of accounts, what the printer has to work out is called “horseflesh.” - S
HorsesPressmen were thus called, on account of the arduous and exhausting character of their labour. - J
Hot pressingA mode of pressing by means of hot plates laid at intervals between the ordinary pressing boards, and placed in a powerful press. - J
Hot rollingA mode of rolling by means of heated rollers which both dry and press the work at the same time. - J
HoursCompositors reckon their lines when working in companionships by ‘‘hours,’’ according to the size of the type and its measure. - J
HouseA term applied to a firm or establishment. See ‘‘The house.’’ - J
House marksCorrections in proofs which the piece-hand is not expected to execute. - J
Hundred and twenty-eightmoBook-work of a small size — any sheet that could be folded into 128 leaves — written shortly, 128mo. - J
Hydraulic pressPresses in which the power is applied by means of water pressure. - J
HyphenA mark [-] used for dividing words at the end of a line, or for compounding words. - J
IIs the eighth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
Imitation parchmentPaper chemically treated so as to resemble parchment. - J
Imitation vellumA prepared paper made to resemble vellum; made from the Japanese vellum paper. - J
Imperfect paperReams of paper not made up to the full number of a printer’s ream, i.e. 516 sheets. Hand-made, drawing, and writing papers are generally imperfect, and run 472, 480, or 500 sheets to the ream. - J
ImperfectionsShort sorts required to perfect a type-founder’s bill for a fount of a certain weight. - J
ImperialA size of printing paper, 30 × 22 inches; writing paper, 34 × 22 inches. - J
Imperial capA size of brown paper, 29 × 22 inches. - J
Imperial pressA hand-press between a Stanhope and an Albion invented by Messrs. Sherwin and Cope many years ago. - J
Imposing stoneA perfectly smooth stone or iron surface on which formes are imposed and corrected, embedded in a strong wooden frame on legs, if stone; if iron, laid on the frame. - J
Imposing surfaceAnother term for ‘‘imposing stone,’’ which see. - J
ImpositionThe art of laying pages down so that when printed they fall correctly in folding. - J
Imposition bookThe book used in the composing-room to indicate the progress of a work and the number of pages credited to each compositor. - J
Imposition scalesThe various schemes or plans by which pages are laid down on the stone for imposition. - J
Imposition schemesSee ‘‘Imposition scales.’’ - J
ImpressionThe pressure applied to the forme by means of a platen or cylinder to give a print from type. - J
Impression screwsThe screws which regulate the amount of pressure in a printing press or machine. - J
Impression sheetsThe sheets which are placed between the tympan or round the cylinder to receive the impression. - J
ImprintBy an old act of parliament a printer is required to affix his name and address to a work (with certain exceptions), and this is termed an imprint. - J
In boardsA general term used to indicate that books are bound in boards, in contradistinction to paper wrappers. - J
In bulkA general term applied to large quantities — the reverse of anything usually packed or ‘‘done up’’ in small quantities. - J
In chaseType imposed, as distinguished from that on galley or packed away in the store-room. - J
In clothBooks bound in cloth, in contradistinction to those in paper covers or bound in leather. - J
In formeType made up and imposed. See ‘‘In chase.’’ - J
In galleyMatter pulled in slips instead of being made up into pages and imposed. - J
In leatherBound books are thus described, to distinguish them from those in paper covers or bound in cloth. - J
In pagesAll the pages of a sheet other than the first or outer page. - J
In paperBooks or pamphlets folded and sewn in paper covers. - J
In pressSheets being cold pressed are said to be ‘‘in press.’’ - J
In quiresBooks in sheets not bound up. - J
In sheetsBooks not bound, but in quires. - J
In slipMatter set up and pulled on galleys before making up into pages. - J
In the holeA compositor behindhand with his copy, and keeping his companions waiting, is thus described. - J
In the metalAnything in type — the reverse of anything in print; for instance, to read a revise ‘‘in the metal’’ before taking a proof. - J
In the openingWhen compositors await a companion finishing his copy in order that the making-up may be passed, the person so waited for is said to be ‘‘in the opening.’’ - J
In the pressA work in course of printing is thus announced to the trade or public. - J
In typeMatter yet standing — not cleared away or broken up. - J
In useObviously any fount of type, or cases for same, when engaged. - J
Incut notesSide-notes which are let into the text, instead of being in the margin. - J
Indelible inkSpecial inks so made; used mostly for marking inks. - J
IndentA line set back a little; for instance, the commencement of a paragraph, which is generally indented an em. - J
IndexThe sign of a hand or fist ☞ Also the reference index at the end of a work. - J
Index matterMatter pertaining to the index at the end of a work. - J
India paperA fine paper used by engravers for proofs, which, though generally imported from China, is called ‘‘India.’’ - J
India proofsArtists’ or engravers’ proofs pulled on India paper. - J
India rubberedBooks when interspersed with plates are sometimes coated at the back with india rubber to save stitching or expense of guarding — when open the book will lie perfectly flat. - J
India-rubber blanketBlankets made of this material are useful for bringing up type when partly worn — a hard impression being best for new type. - J
IndorseThe titles of legal documents or prospectuses, which appear on the outside when folded up. See ‘‘Endorse.’’ - J
Inferior figuresSpecial figures cast or made to range at the bottom of a letter, thus — ₁ â‚‚ ₃ â‚„ - J
Inferior lettersSmall letters which are cast on the lower part of the body, e.g. ₐ â‚‘ áµ¢ â‚’ ᵤ — the reverse of ‘‘superior’’ letters—’’ ^ ‘‘’’^ - J
Ingram machineA rotary machine named after the late proprietor of the ‘‘Illustrated London News.’’ - J
Initial lettersLarge block or floriated letters used at the commencement of a chapter or work. - J
InkThe pigment of various colours which imparts the print to a sheet on impression being applied to type. - J
Ink blockThe board on which the ink was distributed for the old ink-balls. - J
Ink brayerA small wooden implement for rubbing out the ink on the table. - J
Ink cylinderThe revolving iron roller in the ink ductor which imparts a given quantity of ink to the vibrating roller. - J
Ink ductorThe receptacle similar to a trough which holds the ink at the end of a machine. - J
Ink fountainThe ductor of a machine is sometimes thus called. - J
Ink knifeThe long blade in the ductor which regulates by means of keys the amount of ink to be given at each impression. - J
Ink mullerA wooden implement used for rubbing out the ink on the table. - J
Ink slabThe table on which ink is distributed, either at press or machine. - J
Ink sliceA small iron implement used for lifting ink out of cans. - J
Ink solventA wash for cleansing type. - J
Ink tableThe surface on which ink is distributed. - J
Ink upTo run up colour on the rollers, or to coat press rollers with a coarse preservative ink when out of use. - J
InkersThe large rollers on the printing machine which apply the ink to the type. - J
Inking apparatusThe parts of a machine applied for inking purposes. - J
InkoleumAn American patent liquid used with ink for thinning purposes or to facilitate drying. - J
Inner formeThe pages of type which fall on the inside of a printed sheet in ‘‘sheet’’ work — the reverse of ‘‘outer’’ forme. - J
Inner tympanThe reverse of the ‘‘outer’’ tympan — the side which is lifted to place the sheets in. - J
Insensible inkAn ink which cannot be tampered with or effaced by chemicals. - J
InsertionCopy left out by accident, or additional words or copy supplied by an author, is thus termed. - J
InsetA sheet, or part of a sheet, to be placed inside another sheet to complete sequence of pagination. - J
Inside quiresThe good quires of a ream — distinct from ‘‘outsides.’’ - J
Inside reamsGood and selected paper — applied more especially to drawing or hand-made papers — of 480 sheets; mill reams of 472 sheets contain top and bottom ‘‘outside’’ quires. - J
IntaglioPrinting, such as from copperplate — the reverse of ‘‘relief’’ printing. - J
InterAbbreviation used in the reading department for ‘‘note of interrogation.’’ - J
InterleavedWhen woodcuts are printed they are usually sheeted to prevent set-off. Bookbinders also place thin paper in front of plates in binding with the same object. - J
InterleavesSeparate leaves of descriptive matter cut up and interleaved between the plates of an illustrated work. - J
Interlinear matterSmall type between lines of larger character. - J
InterrogationA mark or note of interrogation (?) sometimes used as a query by readers. - J
InterrogatoriesA class of legal work — questions and answers. - J
IntroductionA term applied to the preliminary or introductory portion of a work. - J
Inverted commasExtract matter or names of works are placed between inverted commas, thus ‘‘ and ‘‘ - J
Invictus machineA small treadle platen machine used for jobbing purposes. - J
IrishThe character of type used to compose works in that language. - J
Irish casesA particular kind of cases, with a special lay, for composing works in that language. - J
Iron composing stickThe tool mostly used by compositors, though sticks are sometimes made of wood, gun-metal, and German silver. - J
Iron shooterSpecial sticks made for locking up formes where the quoins are small. - J
ItalicThe sloping characters — distinct from roman types — invented by Aldus Manutius, a Venetian printer. - J
Italic casesCases — as distinguished from roman ones for holding italic founts. - J
ItalicisedWords or sentences in italic — indicated in MS. by a single line underneath. - J
Its own bodyThis term is applied to the text type of a work to distinguish it from the note or appendix types, usually smaller. - J
Its own paperThe particular kind of paper used for a certain work — a proof is sometimes asked for on ‘‘its own paper.’’ - J
AIs the signature used by the printer for the preliminary matter of a work. - J
JIs not used as a signature in the printer’s alphabet. - J
JacketA movable border round a letter or initial. - J
Japanese paperVery thin paper of a silky texture made in Japan and used for artists’ proofs, etc. - J
Japanese vellum paperThick hand-made paper with a vellum surface manufactured in Japan. - J
JeffTo throw or gamble with quadrats as with dice. - J
JemmyAn implement with a flattened toe for raising formes in lifting off the press. - J
JerryThe noise made by beating chases, etc., on an apprentice finishing his time. - J
JiggerA small box with divisions to hold peculiar sorts, usually made of quadrats and leads. - J
JobAny work which makes less than a sheet. - J
Job chasesSmall chases used for jobbing purposes. - J
Job fountA small fount of type used for displaying purposes - distinct from a book fount. - J
Job houseA term applied to printing offices distinct from book or newspaper offices. - J
Jobbing casesDouble cases made with upper and lower in one. They are sometimes made treble. - J
Jobbing galleysGalleys of various sizes and widths suitable for miscellaneous work. - J
Jobbing machinesThe small treadle platen machines. - J
Jobbing stickComposing stick with lever attachment for facilitating the changing of measures. - J
Join upTo bring two or more corners close together in a border; also the ‘‘closing-up’’ of two consecutive takes of copy. - J
JustificationThis term is applied generally to the even and equal spacing of words and lines to a given measure. - J
JustifiersAnother term for quotations or quadrats. - J
JustifyTo space out to any given measure. - J
Justifying a stickTo make a stick up to a given measure. - J
KIs the ninth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
K. D.A slang expression sometimes used by printers — to ‘‘keep dark.’’ - J
Keep downAn instruction to use capital letters somewhat sparingly. - J
Keep inTo set type closely spaced. See ‘‘Get in.’’ - J
Keep outTo set type widely spaced. See ‘‘Drive out.’’ - J
Keep standingType kept in abeyance pending possibility of reprint. - J
Keep upAn instruction to use capitals somewhat freely; also to keep type standing. - J
Kent capA size of brown paper, 21 × 19 inches. - J
KernThe under part of any letter which overhangs the shank or body, as in some italic founts. - J
KeyThe wedge which tightens a wheel on the shaft of a machine. - J
Kidder pressAn American small rotary jobbing machine. - J
King’s paperA particular kind of hand-made paper manufactured at the mill established by the maker of that name. - J
KissWhen rollers on a machine fret against each other they are said to ‘‘kiss.’’ - J
Knib of setting ruleThe nose of the rule which the compositor lifts up line by line as the type is composed. - J
Knock offA somewhat slangy term used by printers occasionally to express leaving off work for meals or for the day. - J
Knock upTo make the edges of a heap of paper straight and square by knocking up to one edge. - J
Koenig machineThe first printing machine was designed by Friedrich Koenig, a German. - J
LIs the tenth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
L. p.Abbreviation for ‘‘large paper’’ copies of works. - J
Label punchesSharp steel dies of various shapes for cutting labels in quantities. - J
LabelsThe class of work which comes under this category — address, parcel, luggage, etc. labels. - J
LacesThe leather laces which fasten the ends of bands or straps together. - J
Ladies’ cardsThe particular cards used for this purpose are ‘‘smalls,’’ size 3½ × 2½ inches. - J
Laid paperPaper showing the wire or dandy marks. - J
Laid upWhen a forme is printed off and required for distribution, it is said to be ‘‘laid-up’’ when washed, placed on the board, and unlocked. The same term is applied to a forme placed on the imposing surface and ready for correction. - J
Lapped paperReams of paper sent in flat, i.e. not folded, with the two ends lapped over — thus being divided into three. - J
Large cardsA size of card, 4½ × 3 inches. - J
Large court envelopesTo take large post 8vo in half, 5½ × 4¼ inches. - J
Large postA size of writing paper, 21 × 16½ inches. - J
LatinThe class of work composed in that language. - J
Latin typeA fancy character of letter for display work. - J
Law workA general term for legal work of any kind. - J
LayThis refers to the position of the print on a sheet of paper. - J
Lay downTo put pages on the stone for imposition. - J
Lay marksThe marks or stops used for laying the sheet to in printing. - J
Lay onTo feed or lay on the sheets one by one in printing. - J
Lay on formeTo put a forme on the press or machine for printing. - J
Lay on pressAn instruction to put a forme on the press preparatory to printing. - J
Lay typeTo put new sorts in cases. - J
Layer onThe feeder on a printing machine. - J
Laying letterThe putting of new type into cases is thus termed. - J
Laying-on boardThe board on which the ‘‘white’’ paper is laid, and from which it is fed sheet by sheet. - J
Laying-up boardThe wooden board on which formes are laid up for distribution. - J
Lead boxThe receptacle for broken or small pieces of leads. - J
Lead caseSpecial cases or trays for holding leads in their respective sizes and thicknesses. - J
Lead cutterA machine for the cutting of leads or brass rule. - J
Lead galleyA galley for holding leads of various sizes and kinds for jobbing purposes. - J
Lead mouldsThe apparatus for casting leads in lengths, which are afterwards cut to sizes. - J
Lead outTo white or spread out by means of leads. - J
Lead racksReceptacles for holding assorted leads. - J
Leaded matterType with leads between the lines — in contradistinction to ‘‘solid’’ matter. - J
LeadersDots or fill points cast on an em of any particular body, thus ... - J
LeadsStrips of lead cast to different thicknesses and cut to various sizes. - J
Leads (Sizes of)Thick (four to pica), thin (eight to pica), six, ten, twelve, fourteen, and sixteen to pica in thickness. - J
LeafletsJobs printed on single leaves, either one or both sides. - J
LeanClose and poor work for piece-hands. - J
Lean faceA thin or meagre-faced fount of letter. The reverse of ‘‘fat face.’’ - J
LeatheretteAn imitation of leather — usually made of embossed paper. - J
LeatheroidAn imitation leather made of cloth or paper. - J
Left-hand pagesThose pages which fall on the left-hand side of a book and have even folios. - J
Legal workThe general term for law work of any kind. - J
Let-in notesAnother term for cut-in notes, i.e. let into the text, as distinct from side-notes. - J
LetterA general term for type as a fount. - J
Letter boardAnother term for laying-up boards, which see. - J
Letter brushA brush used for taking dust off type. - J
Letter foundersOtherwise type founders. - J
Letter hangsWhen pages are not locked up squarely in the forme. - J
Letter mouldThe apparatus used for hand casting of types. - J
Letter paperThis term is applied to quarto paper — note paper being octavo. - J
LetteralsThis term is applied to errors of single letters in proofs. See ‘‘Literals.’’ - J
Letter’s outWhen type runs short through being all in use. - J
LetterpressPrinting from type as distinct from lithographic or plate printing. - J
LeyAnother way of spelling ‘‘lye,’’ the liquid used for cleansing type. - J
Liberty machineAn American treadle platen machine for jobbing purposes. - J
LiftTo raise a forme or type. Also applied to a handful of printed work in the warehouse. - J
LigaturesTwo or more letters cast in one piece, such as ct or ffi. - J
LightSlang term sometimes used by printers for giving or obtaining credit — applied more particularly to that obtained at public houses or beer-shops. - J
Light masterAn organizer or medium between lender and borrower, generally one of the men, who arranges such matters as payment, etc. - J
Light tintsThe lighter parts of an engraving in printing. - J
LightsSee ‘‘Light tints.’’ - J
Line bookThe book used by compositors in making up, showing the progress of any particular work, and the debtor and creditor account of lines to each hand engaged thereon. - J
Line is onWhen companionships of compositors have resumed work after an enforced idleness the line is said to be ‘‘on.’’ - J
Line of quadratsA ‘‘white’’ line formed of quadrats. - J
Line of starsA line of asterisks, thus — * * * * * * to indicate an omission in any sentence or paragraph. - J
Line offIn companionships of compositors it is customary to deduct a line off’’ per hour to counterbalance the trouble of leading matter, etc. - J
Line onSometimes a line on per hour is added when work is exceptionally fat. See ‘‘Line off.’’ - J
Linear papersPapers made with water-marked lines at given distances to guide handwriting. - J
Linen-faced paperPaper having one or both sides covered with linen. Folded cards are often linen-faced to prevent them breaking in half at the score. - J
LinesA compositor on piece-work is said to be on his lines. - J
Lining papersEnd or paste-down papers used by book-binders. - J
LiteralsAnother term for ‘‘letterals,’’ errors of single letters in proofs. - J
LithoA general short term for lithography. - J
LithographicPertaining to lithography. - J
LithographyThe art of printing from stone. - J
LithophineAn American preparation for preserving drawings and writing on stone. - J
LithotintAn etching process executed on lithographic stones. - J
Little WonderA small jobbing platen machine, made by Messrs. Powell. - J
Live steamGood steam — the reverse of waste or exhaust steam. - J
LLThe abbreviation used by booksellers to indicate the number of ‘‘leaves’’ in a book. - J
Loan paperA paper of hard, thin, and tough texture, used for documents and debenture forms. - J
Lock-upTo fasten up tightly the quoins of a forme by means of a mallet and shooting-stick. - J
Lock-up chasesSpecial chases made in order to dispense with large quantities of furniture in filling up spare room in formes or on the press. - J
Lock-up ironThe iron stick used for tightening up formes as they stand instead of laying them up. - J
Locking-up apparatusApplied to the various kinds of patent fastening, such as screws or iron wedges. - J
LogotypesTwo or more letters, or sometimes words, cast in one piece. - J
London scale of pricesThe recognized scale of prices in vogue in London as agreed to by masters and men. - J
Long case rackTall case racks distinct from frame racks. - J
Long crossThe longest cross-bar of a chase. - J
Long lettersAccented letters used to denote contractions, pronunciation, as ā Ä“ Ä« ō Å« nÌ„ pÌ„, etc. - J
Long measuresType composed in wide measures. - J
Long numbersOrders to print large numbers are thus called. - J
Long pageA page of type which is a line longer than its companion pages. - J
Long PrimerA size of type one size larger than Bourgeois and one size smaller than Small Pica, equal to two Pearls. - J
Long Primer regletWooden furniture of that depth in body. - J
Long pullWhen the bar-handle of a press is pulled right over. - J
Long sThe old kind of ‘‘s’’ thus ‘‘ Å¿ ‘‘ used in old style or antique work. - J
Long takesPortions of copy given out to compositors in larger quantities than usual. - J
Long twelvesA plan of imposition whereby the pages are laid down in two long rows of six pages. - J
LongsA general term for ‘‘long’’ accents. - J
Loose justifyingLines badly spaced, i.e. not tight enough. - J
LowWhen letters or other parts of a printed sheet do not show up clearly they are said to be ‘‘low.’’ - J
Low caseWhen type is very nearly set out of a case. - J
Low quadratsQuadrats of ordinary height, as distinguished from the high quadrats formerly used for plaster stereo work. - J
Low spacesSee ‘‘Low quadrats’’ - J
Low to paperType when worn is of course lower than when new, and it is then said to be ‘‘low to paper.’’ - J
Lower boardsThe under or taking-off boards on a printing machine. - J
Lower caseThe case which contains the small letters, points, and spaces — the lower of the pair of cases. - J
Lower case sortsLetters belonging to the lower case of the pair — distinct from capitals or small capitals. - J
LubricatorsSmall glass globes placed on the shafting to lubricate the working parts of a machine. - J
LugWhen rollers are tacky or stick together they are said to lug. - J
LyeThe preparation used for cleansing type after printing. - J
Lye brushThe article used in applying the liquid. - J
Lye jarsEarthenware articles for storing lye. - J
Lye troughThe receptacle for holding lye. - J
MIs the eleventh signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
Machine boysThe lads who lay on, take off, and job about generally in the machine department. - J
Machine menThe workmen or ‘‘minders’’ who tend the machines. - J
Machine minderThe skilled workman who is responsible for the care of the machine. - J
Machine paperPaper other than that made by hand. - J
Machine pointsSpecial points which are used in the machine department, and distinct from press points. - J
Machine rollersThe various rollers in use for machine printing generally, such as inkers, vibrators, wavers, etc., which see respectively. - J
Machine room (or department)That portion of a printing office occupied by the machines. - J
Machine tapesThe narrow tapes which guide and carry the sheets from the cylinders in printing. - J
Machine workA general term for work executed by machine as distinct from hand-press. - J
MachinesMechanical appliances of various kinds, both platen and cylindrical, for printing purposes. - J
Machines (Varieties of)Such as platen, cylinder, perfecting, rotary, jobbing, etc., which see respectively. - J
MackleA printed sheet with a slurred appearance, owing to the frisket dragging, or a defect in the impression. - J
MaculeSee ‘‘Mackle.’’ - J
Made-upWhen type is measured off into pages it is said to be made-up. - J
MagAn abbreviation very generally used by printers for ‘‘magazine.’’ - J
MagazinesA class of periodical work which has a special and extra charge in composition. - J
Main shaftingThe principal part of the shafting from which a number of machines are driven. - J
Main’s machineA machine invented by Mr. T. Main, sometimes called a ‘‘tumbler’’ on account of its peculiar motion. - J
Make evenIn copy with long paragraphs, or in newspaper work, compositors have sometimes to finish their portions at the end of a line, in order to expedite the closing up of ‘‘takes.’’ They are then said to ‘‘make even.’’ - J
Make-upTo measure off matter into pages. - J
Making marginTo give the proper proportion of margin or furniture to a forme preparatory to imposition. - J
Making measureTo make the composing stick up to a given measure. - J
Making readyPreparing for printing by patching up or cutting away, etc. - J
MalletA wooden hammer with a large head used for locking-up formes. - J
Maltese crossA religious sign, thus ✠ - J
Man powerThe power of the smaller engines, usually driven by gas, is determined by ‘‘man power.’’ In the larger ones it is indicated by horse power. - J
Man-holeThe aperture in a boiler which admits of a person going inside for cleansing purposes. - J
Manifold paperCarbonized paper used largely by shopkeepers — especially drapers — for duplicating invoices. - J
Manilla paperPaper made of a fibre imported from Manilla. - J
ManuscriptWritten copy (MS.), which has a special scale in composition, distinct from ‘‘reprint’’ copy. - J
MapA slang expression for a proof on which there are a great number of marks. - J
Marbled edgesThe cut edges of books are often marbled instead of being gilt. - J
Marbled paperA particular kind of paper of various patterns generally used for end leaves and paste-downs of books. - J
MarginThe blank paper surrounding a page of print. - J
Marginal notesUsually called side-notes; sometimes in-cut, or let into the matter at the side. - J
Marinoni machineA French printing machine of rotary make, invented by a person of that name. - J
MarkThis refers to the mark to which a sheet is laid in printing. - J
Marking inkIndelible ink used for marking linen, etc. - J
MarksThe corrections and alterations marked on a proof sheet. - J
Marks of referenceSigns of various kinds used for notes, such as * † ‖ ¶ Sometimes superior figures or letters are so used. - J
MaryIf none of the nicks appear uppermost in throwing or ‘‘jeffing’’ with quadrats, the throw is called a ‘‘Mary.’’ See ‘‘Molly.’’ - J
Master printerThe employer and head of a printing office. - J
Mathematical signsVarious characters used in relation to mathematics. - J
Matrice (or Matrix)The copper mould with a punch struck in by which type is cast. Also called ‘‘Strikes.’’ - J
MatricesPlural of matrice or matrix. - J
MatterAnother term for composed type. - J
M’s and W’sA slang expression used to define an intoxicated person’s unsteady gait. - J
MeasureThe given width of a page of type. Measures are generally made to pica ems, but sometimes in narrow or double-column matter an en is used in addition. - J
Medhurst’s pressAn iron platen hand-press made in the early part of this century by Mr. Medhurst. - J
Medical contractionsAbbreviated words used in medical works. - J
Medical signsSigns and characters appertaining to medicine. - J
MediumA size of printing paper, 19 × 24 inches; writing, 22 × 17½ inches. - J
Melting kettleThe utensil used for melting down composition for making rollers. - J
Melting potSee ‘‘Melting kettle.’’ - J
MetalThe compound used for type or stereotype plates. - J
Metal furnitureFurniture cast in an alloy of poorer quality than type metal. - J
Metal galleyGalleys generally made of zinc, but sometimes of brass, used for newspaper work mostly. - J
Metal ruleA general term for em rules or dashes. Also applied to longer rules, such as two, three, and four ems. - J
Metallic cardsCards made with a prepared enamelled surface. - J
Metallic quoinsPatented iron quoins in lieu of the old wooden ones. - J
Miche (or Mike)A printer’s slang term for skulking or playing about. - J
Middling spacesSpaces cast four to an em of any particular body. - J
Mill reamsHand-made paper only 472 sheets to a ream; if all inside quires, 480. - J
MillboardA species of board made very hard, and well rolled, used for the better class of bookbinding. - J
MilledPaper rolled or glazed — with a high surface. - J
Miller and Richard’s typeA term frequently used to describe the revived ‘‘old style’’ types initiated by the firm of that name. - J
MindersA short term very generally used for machine minders. - J
Minerva machineA small platen jobbing machine — the original ‘‘Cropper’’ machine. - J
MinionA size of type one size larger than Emerald and one size smaller than Brevier. - J
MinnikinA size of type smaller than Brilliant, and a fourth of Pica in body only. - J
Minute markAn accent mark (′) is used to express chronological or geographical minutes. - J
Minutes of evidenceA class of legal work. - J
MissAn omission to lay a sheet on by the feeder of a machine. - J
Missing sheetsAny omitted sheets from a gathered book. - J
MitreTo chamfer or bevel the ends of rules in order that they may join closely in forming a border. - J
Mitred cornersRules made with corners bevelled or chamfered. - J
Mitreing machineA mechanical appliance for chamfering or bevelling rules for borders, etc. - J
MixtureAn extra charge involved on composition if three or more types are used in a work. - J
Model pressA jobbing platen machine originally of American make, but now made in this country. - J
Modern-face typeFounts of recent date, the reverse of antique or old-faced types. - J
MollyIn throwing with quadrats if the nicks are not uppermost; this reckons as a blank. See ‘‘Mary.’’ - J
MonkA black patch on a printed sheet caused through insufiicient distribution or bad ink. - J
Monkey wrenchA screw hammer with an extending claw made to fit various sized nuts. - J
MonkeysCompositors were sometimes thus styled by pressmen in retaliation for being called by them ‘‘pigs.’’ - J
MonotintTint printing in any one colour. - J
Mos (’Mos)A slang term frequently used by printers for ‘‘animosity.’’ - J
Mottled cardsCards with a mottled surface of various colours. - J
Mottled paperFancy paper made in various colours with mottled surfaces. - J
MouldThe apparatus for casting type — the matrix being placed inside. - J
MouldsGenerally understood as the preliminary stage in stereotyping by paper process. Moulds of course are used for plaster work and electrotyping too. - J
Mounting woodThe material, generally mahogany, on which stereotype or electrotype plates are mounted. - J
MountsA class of printed work on which photographs, etc., are mounted. - J
Mouse rollerA small additional roller for the better distribution of ink on a machine. - J
MovableA general term applied to type to distinguish it from stereotype, etc. - J
Movable barsSome chases are made with cross-bars which can be removed. This is sometimes a great convenience. - J
Movable cross-barsSee ‘‘Movable bars.’’ - J
MS.An abbreviation for manuscript. - J
MSS.Plural of the abbreviation MS. — manuscripts. - J
MucilageAny substance used for adhesive purposes. - J
MullerA wooden implement used for rubbing out ink on the table or slab. - J
Multicolour lettersCharacters cut in separate pieces for working in two or more colours. - J
Multiple markA sign in arithmetic, thus × - J
Music casesSpecial cases of a complicated character for composing type-music. - J
Music demyA size of printing paper, 20¾ × 14â…œ inches. - J
Music of the pressThe noise occasioned in working a press in full swing is thus termed. - J
Music printingThe art of printing music from type or plates. - J
Music typeSpecial type used in letterpress printing distinct from engraved plates. - J
Mutton fistAn index hand, thus ☞ sometimes shortly called a ‘‘fist.’’ - J
NIs the twelfth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
N. F.A slang term frequently used by printers — an abbreviation for ‘‘no fly,’’ to feign ignorance or indifference. - J
N.P.An abbreviation for ‘‘new paragraph,’’ the commencement of a new line by means of indentation. - J
NailA printer’s slang term for ‘‘backbiting’’ anyone. - J
Naked formeA forme of type waiting for — or stripped of — furniture. - J
Napier machinePlaten machines made by Messrs. Napier. - J
NarrowWooden furniture (sometimes of metal) three picas in width. - J
Narrow measuresType composed in narrow widths, as in column matter. - J
Near cheekThe cheek nearest the pressmen. - J
Nearside of pressThe side of the press nearest the workman. - J
Neck of a letterThe sloping part of a type from the shank to the face of the letter. - J
New paragraphThe commencement of a section at a fresh line — usually indented an em. - J
News composing stickThese tools are often of mahogany lined with brass for the sake of lightness, and made up to a fixed measure. - J
News housePrinting offices for that class of work — distinct from houses which lay themselves out for book-work and jobbing. - J
News quoinsThe larger kind of wooden quoins are thus termed, those used for book-work being of a smaller average. - J
News stickSee ‘‘News composing stick.’’ - J
Newspaper chasesSpecially made chases to allow of the pages being laid closely together on the machine. See ‘‘Folding chases.’’ - J
Nicholson’s machineThis machine was devised by William Nicholson in the last century, and was the forerunner of all subsequent machines. - J
NickThe groove or grooves placed in the shank of a letter to assist composition, and to discriminate between different founts. - J
Nickel faceElectrotypes are often nickel-faced when they are to be used with red ink, as copper deteriorates the colour. - J
Night workExtra or late work charged as overtime. - J
NippersA small implement used for correcting type — especially tabular work — instead of the ordinary bodkin. - J
Nipping pressA small screw press for the more expeditious cold-pressing of jobs. - J
No returnAnother expression for the extra charge in composition for pamphlet — when a work is all got up without a return of type. - J
Noiseless forme carriageA small trolley with india-rubber tyred wheels. - J
Non-socAn abbreviation for ‘‘Non-society.’’ - J
Non-society handsWorkmen distinct from those belonging to any trade organization. - J
Non-society housesPrinting offices not recognizing the society scale or open to society hands. - J
NonpareilThe size of a type one size larger than Pearl and one size smaller than Emerald — half of a Pica in depth of body. - J
Nonpareil brass ruleBrass rules cast on this body are used for borders or column rules. - J
Nonpareil clumpsMetal leads of that depth in body. - J
Nonpareil leadsLeads cast to that depth in body. - J
Nonpareil regletWooden furniture of that depth in body. - J
Note of admirationA mark of punctuation, thus ! - J
Note of exclamationThe same as ‘‘note of admiration.’’ - J
Note of interrogationA mark of punctuation, thus ? - J
Note papersThese papers are octavo in shape, but of various sizes; letter papers being quarto shape, and also of various sizes. - J
Note papers (Sizes of)Large post, small post, Albert, Queen’s, etc. - J
NotesA general term for either marginal or foot-notes. - J
NumberingThis is applied more particularly to the numbering or paging, double and otherwise, of cheque books, etc. - J
Numbering machineThe mechanical appliance for numbering or paging purposes . - J
NumeralsNumbering by means of Roman numerals, i, ii, iii, iv, etc., instead of Arabic figures, 1, 2, 3, etc. - J
OIs the thirteenth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
O. E.Abbreviation for the words Old English (black letter). - J
O. P.A publisher’s term signifying that a book is ‘‘out of print.’’ - J
O. T.An abbreviation for ‘‘overtime.’’ - J
O. T. M.An abbreviation for ‘‘Old Turkey mill’’ writing papers. - J
ObeliskUsually called a ‘‘dagger,’’ thus † a mark of reference to foot-notes. - J
OblongThis is the reverse of ‘‘upright’’ in speaking of any particular size — i.e. an ‘‘oblong’’ 8vo, not ‘‘upright’’ 8vo. - J
OctavoA sheet of paper folded into eight — shortly written thus — 8vo. - J
Octavo pointsLong straight press-points, not elbowed as ‘‘twelves’’ points. - J
OctodecimoA sheet folded into eighteen leaves. See ‘‘Eighteenmo,’’ written shortly, 18mo. - J
Odd foliosThose pages which fall on the right-hand side of a book and are numbered 1, 3, 5, 7, etc. - J
Odd pagesSee ‘‘Odd folios.’’ - J
OffWhen a press or machine has printed the required number of copies, the forme is said to be ‘‘off.’’ - J
Off cheekThe cheek of the press on the farther side from the workman. - J
Off colourA slang expression sometimes used by printers to define a man neglecting his work, being out of condition. - J
Off its feetA term applied to type when it is not standing squarely on its feet. - J
Off-cutThat part of the sheet which has to be cut off in order that the sheet may be folded correctly, as in a ‘‘twelves.’’ - J
Off-setThe set-off of ink from one sheet to another of printed work whilst wet. - J
Official envelopesLong narrow envelopes, 8¾ × 3¾ inches, to take fcap. folio when folded in four — used in official circles. - J
Offside of pressThe side of the press farthest from the workman. - J
Oil canThe utensil for holding oil for lubrication. - J
Oil holesSmall apertures in various parts of a machine to allow of oil being readily applied in order to avoid friction. - J
Oiled paperPrepared paper for copying purposes. It is sometimes used for set-off sheets. - J
Old cutAnything pertaining to the old or antique style. - J
Old EnglishFounts of type of black-letter character. - J
Old faceSee ‘‘Old cut.’’ - J
Old peltAn appellation for an old pressman in bygone days. - J
Old styleSee ‘‘Old cut’’ or ‘‘Old face.’’ - J
Old Turkey millA machine writing paper of good quality. - J
Old-cut typeFounts similar to the Caslon old-faced type. - J
Old-face typeSee ‘‘Old-cut type.’’ - J
Old-style typeSee ‘‘Old-cut type.’’ - J
On galleyAny type on galley — distinct from that made-up; or paged. - J
On grassA compositor taking casual work is said to be ‘‘on grass.’’ See ‘‘Smout.’’ - J
On linesA compositor on piece-work is thus described. - J
On pieceA printer engaged and paid by result of work done. - J
On the carpetA slang term sometimes used by printers when a workman is summoned before the authorities into the counting house. - J
On the gathering boardWork in course of ‘‘gathering’’ into books is thus designated. - J
On timeWhen a man is paid by the hour or week, and not by piece-work, he is said to be ‘‘on time.’’ - J
On trampWorkmen on the road seeking employment from town to town. - J
One-sided machineOrdinary style of single cylinder machines. - J
Open matterFat and well-leaded work. - J
Open spacingWide spacing between the words of a line or different lines. - J
Open the formeTo unloosen and open out the forme for cleansing purposes — or to unlock for correction. - J
Open workWell leaded or otherwise ‘‘fat’’ matter. - J
OpeningWhen a compositor has copy in hand unfinished, and the next man in order awaits the closing-up. - J
OrganIn slang a man who lends money to his fellow-workmen at a weekly interest. - J
Otto gas engineA gas motor especially well adapted for driving printing machinery. - J
Ounce markA medical sign, thus â„¥ - J
OutAn accidental omission of copy in composition. - J
Out of conditionPrinting rollers not in good order for working. - J
Out of copyWhen a compositor has finished his portion of copy, or the whole of the copy in hand is finished or is all given out by the clicker. - J
Out of his timeAn apprentice who has completed his indentured term is thus described. - J
Out of letterWhen type is scarce or all used up. - J
Out of registerWhen pages do not back one another line for line, or at head and foot, through bad gauging of pages or furniture. - J
Out of sortsWhen there is a run on any particular letter or letters, and these become scarce. - J
Out of typeSee ‘‘Out of letter.’’ - J
Out of useWhen type or other material is standing by. - J
Out pageThe first or signature page of a sheet. - J
Outer formeThe outer side of a sheet of work. - J
Outer tympanThe larger tympan, into which the inner one fits. - J
Outside reamsReams of paper made up entirely of outside or damaged sheets. - J
OutsidesThe top or bottom sheets of a ream — generally damaged and called ‘‘retree.’’ - J
OvalsBorders or frames of that shape, generally made of brass. - J
OvercastA particular kind of book sewing which allows the book when open to lie flat. - J
OverlayTo make ready by overlaying — the reverse of underlaying. - J
OverlaysThe term for the special making-ready of an illustration, consisting of several thicknesses of paper cut out according to the nature of the design. - J
OverplusThe ‘‘plus’’ or ‘‘over’’ copies of a definite number in printing. - J
OverrunTo re-arrange or re-make-up matter after deletions or insertions. - J
OversThe ‘‘plus’’ copies beyond a certain number. - J
OverseerThe foreman of any department in a printing office. - J
OversewnSee ‘‘Overcast.’’ - J
OvertimeLate or night work that involves an extra charge on labour. - J
PIs the fourteenth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
P.An abbreviation for the word ‘‘page.’’ - J
PackTo paper and string up parcels in the warehouse, or to paper up type or plates. - J
Pack of cardsA pack of cards is fifty-two in number. - J
PackerThe warehouseman specially told off for packing-up work. - J
PackingA material, generally hemp, used for making tight and sound the joints of steam and other pipes. - J
PageA portion of type of a given size made up into shape for printing. - J
Page cordA particular kind of cord, about the thickness of twine, used for tying up pages of type. - J
Page gaugeA piece of notched reglet used for making-up pages to a uniform length. - J
Page hangsWhen a forme is badly locked up the corners of the pages get out of the square and are said to ‘‘hang.’’ - J
Page paperPieces of stiff paper or wrapper upon which pages of type are placed in order to release galleys. - J
Paging inkA special ink made for paging or numbering machines. - J
Paging machinesMechanical apparatus for automatic numbering. - J
Pair of casesThe two cases of type, upper and lower respectively, are said to be a ‘‘pair.’’ - J
Pale colourSheets printed with an insufficient quantity of ink. - J
Pallet knifeAn article used for taking ink from the can and for spreading it on the table, or for mixing purposes. - J
PamphletAny work which does not exceed five sheets, and is usually done up in a paper wrapper. An extra charge on composition is involved for this class of work. - J
Pan onA slang expression sometimes used by printers to describe anyone with a ‘‘fit of the blues.’’ - J
PantographAn instrument for drawing on reduced or enlarged scales. - J
PapéteriesFrench equivalent for stationery. - J
Paper (Sizes of)Regular sizes, such as demy, medium, royal, double foolscap, double crown, imperial, etc. - J
Paper (Varieties of)Such as hand-made, machine, drawing, writing, etc. - J
Paper benchThe bank or ‘‘horse’’ which paper is placed on in the press-room. - J
Paper boardsA term applied to cheap bindings in boards, but with paper instead of cloth sides. - J
Paper clothPaper made with a cloth face to allow of its being folded without breaking. - J
Paper knifeA knife used in the warehouse for cutting up paper or for opening the edges of a book. - J
Paper mouldingStereotype moulding by the ‘‘paper’’ or ‘‘patent’’ process. - J
Paper processStereotyping by means of paper moulds, called the ‘‘new’’ or ‘‘patent’’ process — distinct from ‘‘plaster’’ process. - J
Paper stereoSee ‘‘Paper process.’’ - J
Paper the caseLining the bottoms of cases — usually done now by the manufacturers before the bottom of the case is fastened on. - J
Paper upTo paper up sorts or type for warehousing in store-room. - J
Papier IngresA French hand-made paper used more especially for drawing purposes. - J
Papier-machéPulped paper compressed into various shapes. - J
PapyrographA small mechanical apparatus for duplicating letters, etc., first written by hand upon a prepared substance, and from which a large number of copies can be taken. - J
PapyrusThe ancient material for writing purposes, made from a reed which grows in Egypt. Also applied to the old written scrolls. - J
Par.Abbreviation used in the reading department for the words ‘‘parenthesis’’ or ‘‘paragraph.’’ - J
ParagonA size of type one size larger than Great Primer and one size smaller than Double Pica, equalling two Long Primers in depth. - J
ParagraphThe commencement of a fresh section by a new line, indicated on MS. by ¶ or [ - J
Paragraph markA reference mark, thus ¶ - J
ParallelA reference mark for foot-notes, indicated thus ‖ - J
ParchmentSheepskins prepared for writing or printing purposes. - J
Pardoe machineA rotary machine adapted for newspaper work invented by Mr. J. Pardoe. - J
ParenthesisA mark of punctuation indicated thus ( or ) - J
Pars.An abbreviation of the word ‘‘paragraphs.’’ - J
Particulars of saleA class of work which comes under the head of legal or auctioneer’s work. - J
Passing the galleyIn slip work, when a compositor has finished his copy, he passes the galley, if not already filled, to the next in order. - J
Passing the make-upAs each compositor finishes his copy he makes up his matter into pages, and then ‘‘passes the make-up’’ to the next in order. - J
PasteA mucilage made of flour with the addition of a little alum. - J
Paste and scissorsMatter copied from journal to journal is sarcastically so termed. - J
Paste bowlThe utensil for holding paste. - J
Paste pointsVery fine points — usually drawing pins — used for very closely registered work on a hand-press. - J
Paste-downsThe blank flyleaves, sometimes coloured, at either end of a book which are pasted down on the covers. - J
PasteboardBoards made by pasting sheets of paper to any given thickness. - J
Patch upTo overlay or bring up an impression sheet with pieces of thin paper. - J
Patent compositionSee ‘‘Patent rollers.’’ - J
Patent rollersApplied to rollers of special composition, protected by letters patent. - J
Patent typeThe specially hard type made by the Patent Type Founding Co. - J
P’sThis curtailment stands for ‘‘apprentices.’’ - J
P’s and Q’sA novice at case is told to mind his p’s and q’s owing to the similarity in shape between the letters. - J
PearlA size of type one size larger than Diamond and one size smaller than Ruby, equalling half a Long Primer in depth — the smallest type enumerated by Moxon. - J
PearlashCarbonate of potash when diluted is used as a wash for type. - J
PeculiarsA general term for out-of-the-way sorts, i.e. accents, records, etc. - J
Pedestal ink tableA small ink table on a single leg or pedestal. - J
PeelA wooden implement used for hanging up printed sheets for drying. - J
PeelingA process of preparing overlays by skivering or thinning down the hard edges of an illustration. - J
PeltsSheepskins for covering the old-fashioned balls used in inking type. - J
Per cent markA commercial sign, thus % - J
Perfect paperReams of paper made up to a printer’s ream, i.e. 516 sheets, are said to be ‘‘perfect.’’ - J
Perfect upThis is the printing of the second side of the paper in half-sheet or sheet work. - J
PerfectingThe act of printing the second side of a sheet. - J
Perfecting machineA double cylindrical machine which prints both sides of the sheet at one operation. - J
Perforating machineA mechanical contrivance for perforating purposes. - J
Perforating ruleA dotted rule standing high in a forme of type which would partly cut the paper in printing. - J
PerforationTo allow of a portion being torn off readily order books and cheque books are generally perforated by small pin-holes. - J
PeriodThis mark of punctuation is technically called a full-point. - J
PeriodicalsThe class of work which embraces journals and magazines, and involves an extra charge in composition. - J
Permanent coloursInks which do not readily fade — used for cheque books, etc. - J
PersianThe particular fount of type used for composing works in that language. - J
Persian casesCases of a special lay for works in that language. - J
Persian moroccoAn imitation morocco leather. - J
Photo-lithographyIn this process the work is placed on the stone by means of photography instead of being drawn by hand. - J
Photo-zincographyProcess blocks produced by means of photography on zinc plates. - J
Photographic cardsCards used for mounting photographic prints. - J
PhotographyA process of chemical printing from glass after development by means of light. - J
PhytochromotypyA process by means of which plants and leaves are printed on paper. - J
PicaA size of type one size larger than Small Pica and one size smaller than English — the body usually taken as a standard for leads, width of measures, etc. — it is equal to two Nonpareils in body. - J
Pica clumpsPieces of metal of that depth in body. - J
Pica regletWooden furniture of that depth in body. - J
Pick brushA small stiff brush used for cleansing type. - J
Pick sortsTo take any particular scarce letter from good or bad matter in order to obviate distribution. - J
PickerA corrector or finisher of stereotype plates. In olden times a fine bodkin was thus termed. - J
PickingTouching up or repairing stereo or electro plates. - J
PicksA speck or blur caused by dirt or badly distributed ink on the face of a letter. - J
PieType broken or indiscriminately mixed. - J
PieceAbbreviation for ‘‘piece-work.’’ - J
Piece-workWork paid for by result, in accordance with a fixed scale of charges, distinct from time-work or ’stab. - J
Piecing leadsIn wide measures of type the leads required are usually pieced, because long leads are apt to get bent or broken. - J
Pigeon holesReceptacles for type and sorts in the storeroom. - J
PiggeryA slang expression used by compositors to define a press-room. - J
PighAnother way of spelling the word ‘‘pie,’’ occasionally used. - J
PigsPressmen are thus denominated by compositors in order to annoy them. - J
PigstyA press-room is sometimes thus designated by compositors. - J
Pile of booksA stack of books bound or in sheets — if gathered. - J
Pile of paper (or work)A stack of printed or unprinted paper. - J
Pin markThis is the slight mark in the side of a type near the top of the shank made in casting by machinery. - J
Pinched postA size of writing paper, small post, 19 × 14½ inches. - J
PinionA small wheel, such as a cog, working within a larger one. - J
PinsThe French brads or nails used for mounting plates on wood. - J
Pirie’s paperMostly applied to the writing papers of various kinds made by Messrs Pirie and Sons of Aberdeen. - J
PistonA small cylinder which works in and out, fixed in the larger cylinder of the engine, and which conveys the motion to machinery by means of a rod. - J
Piston rodThe connection between the piston and machinery which imparts motion. - J
PitThe hollow cavity in the floor under a machine for accessibility to the under parts. It is sometimes also necessary for the steady working of a machine. - J
PitchPlacing the forme on a machine to a given position, in order that the type will be printed correctly on the sheet. - J
PlacardsThe class of small poster work, such as showbills, etc. - J
PlanerA flat smooth piece of wood used for levelling the type before locking-up. - J
Planing downThe act of levelling the type by means of the wooden planer. - J
Planing machineA machine used for planing the backs of stereo plates or squaring up plates and blocks. - J
PlantThis term covers the whole of the working material of a printer — machines, type, etc. - J
Plaster stereoStereotype plates cast from plaster moulds. - J
Plate markedThe impression mark of the outer edge beyond the printed part of a copper-plate. - J
Plate paperSoft paper of good quality used for woodcut printing. - J
PlatenThat part of the press or machine which comes down on the forme and gives the impression. - J
Platen machinePrinting machines which have a flat impression — not a cylindrical one. - J
PlatesA general term for stereo or electro plates. - J
PlattenAnother mode of spelling the word ‘‘Platen,’’ which see. - J
PloughAn instrument used for cutting the edges of a book. - J
PlugTo repair any damage to a woodcut it is necessary to ‘‘plug’’ the block and re-engrave. - J
PlusThe over copies to any given number in printing off. - J
Plus markA sign in arithmetic, thus + - J
Point holesThe punctures made in the sheets by the pins or spurs of the points. - J
Point screwsScrews for fastening the points on the tympan. - J
PointerThe layer-on on a machine who ‘‘points’’ the second side of a sheet in printing. - J
PointsAn expression applied generally to all marks of punctuation. - J
PoleA slang expression for a wages bill. - J
PolesA series of wooden poles for drying printed work. - J
Polling backwardsWhen a compositor designedly retards the finishing of his copy in order to secure a better take next time, even though he may lose more in the end by idling. - J
Polton’s paperA particular kind of machine writing paper wire-marked with that name. - J
Pos (’Pos)An abbreviation for the word apostrophe — a mark of punctuation. - J
PostA size of printing paper, 20 × 16 inches; see Large post and Small post respectively. - J
Postal tubesTubes of various sizes, made of paper or thin strawboard, for protecting paper or prints going through the post. - J
Postcard sizeThe official-size for inland cards is 4¾ × 3 inches ; for foreign, 5½ × 3½ inches. - J
Poster chasesLarge chases without cross-bars adapted for broadside work. - J
Poster stickA long wooden composing stick. - J
PostersThe class of work used for posting up on hoardings — large broadsides, etc. - J
PottA size of writing paper, 15½ × 12½ inches; printing paper, 16 × 13 inches. - J
Pouncey’s paperA particular kind of writing paper manufactured by the maker of that name. - J
PP.Plural of abbreviation of p. for ‘‘page.’’ - J
PreliminaryAny matter coming before the main text of a work — title, preface, contents, etc. - J
PressA hand machine for printing or for pressing. - J
Press blanketsBlankets used as tympans. They are sometimes laid in between the two tympans when made of other material. - J
Press boardsGenerally the boards used in the wetting press. - J
Press girthingThe webbing which checks the running in or out of the press carriage. - J
Press goesWhen the pressmen are at work and in ‘‘full swing.’’ - J
Press lock-up chasesLarge chases specially made to allow of small jobs being locked-up inside them on the press. - J
Press pinThe bar used for tightening up the screw-press. - J
Press platesThe iron plates placed at intervals in the hydraulic press. - J
Press proofThe final proof passed by the author or publisher ‘‘for press.’’ - J
Press reviseThe final proof for press or machine. - J
Press reviserThe reader who revises the final proofs. - J
Press rollersThe rollers used at press, as distinguished from machine rollers. - J
Press room (or department)The part of a printing office occupied by the hand-presses. - J
Press workA general term for work executed by hand-press. - J
Presses (Varieties of)Albion, Columbian, Stanhope, Alexandra, etc. - J
Pressing boardsThe glazed boards used for pressing printed sheets. - J
PressmenThe skilled workmen who manipulate hand-presses. - J
Prestonian machineA rotary machine adapted for newspaper work, and equally available for type or stereotype plates. - J
PrimaIn reading a work sheet by sheet the first word of the ensuing signature is marked by the reader as the ‘‘prima.’’ - J
Prince of Wales note paperA size of writing paper, 4½ × 3 inches. - J
PrintCompositors sometimes speak of work as ‘‘print.’’ - J
Printers’ devilA term generally applied to the junior apprentice in a printing office. - J
Printers’ marksIn olden times many printers had their own particular signs, and were identified by these marks. - J
Printers’ reamA perfect ream of 516 sheets. - J
PrinteryAn Americanism for a printing office. - J
PrintingThe art of imprinting type on paper by means of ink. - J
Printing houseA more ancient term for a printing office. - J
Printing inksPigments of various colours for taking a readable impression from type. - J
Printing officesThe more modern expression for printing houses. - J
Printing papersPapers of a cheaper description specially used for printing purposes, distinct from hand-made or drawing papers. - J
PrintsIllustrations or plates in a book. - J
Process blocksIllustrations in relief produced by any mechanical process. - J
Process workApplied to blocks made by mechanical means. - J
Prog.An abbreviation of the word ‘‘prognosticate’’ very frequently used by printers. - J
ProofA trial print of any forme of type, plates, or blocks. - J
Proof paperA commoner description of printing paper used for taking trial proofs. - J
Proof pressA hand-press used exclusively for pulling proofs. - J
Proof pullerThe person told off for this particular duty. - J
Proof readerA general term for the ‘‘corrector of the press.’’ - J
Proof sheetApplied to the preliminary prints for reading purposes. - J
Proofs in sheetsProofs of matter made up into pages imposed and pulled in sheet form, as distinct from slip proofs. - J
Proofs in slipsWhere corrections and alterations are likely to be heavy, proofs are asked for in ‘‘slip’’ form — not made up into pages. - J
Prov.An abbreviation for the word ‘‘provident,’’ a fund established for unemployed workmen by their trade society. - J
Provincial housesA general term for expressing printing offices out of London. - J
PublicationsPeriodicals and such like. This class of work has a special charge in ‘‘casting up.’’ - J
Publishers’ bindingAn ordinary term used for cloth binding. - J
PuffA recognized term for an advertisement in ordinary matter — anything obliquely praised. - J
Pull outA somewhat slangy expression used as a direction to make more haste. - J
Pull overThe act of bringing the bar-handle of a press over. - J
Pulled homeWhen the bar of a hand-press is pulled right over so as to touch the near side cheek. - J
PullerThat one of the pair who work at a printing press who pulls the press over. - J
PulleyA small wheel on which any part of a machine or tape revolves. - J
PullsA term applied generally to proofs or copies of a forme. - J
Pulp boardsCardboards made from pulp of any thickness — not pasteboard. - J
PunchesThe small steel dies used for punching into the matrix. - J
PunctuationThe art of giving sense to composition by marks of punctuation. It is generally termed pointing by printers. - J
Punctuation (Marks of)All points used in punctuation come under this head. - J
Put downTo alter any words with capitals to lower case. - J
Put inTo distribute type ready for composition. - J
Put upTo alter lower case to capitals. See ‘‘Put down.’’ - J
Put up overlaysTo place the making ready of cuts on a machine. - J
PyeAnother way of spelling the word ‘‘pie.’’ - J
QIs the fifteenth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
QuadA very general abbreviation of the word ‘‘quadrat.’’ Also used as a short term for ‘‘quadruple.’’ - J
Quad crownA size of printing paper equalling four crowns, 40 × 30 inches. - J
Quad demyA size of printing paper equalling four demys, 45 × 35 inches. - J
Quad foolscapA size of printing paper equalling four foolscaps, 34 × 27 inches. - J
Quad largeCards equalling four ‘‘large,’’ 9 × 6 inches. - J
Quad mediumA size of printing paper equalling four mediums, 48 × 38 inches. - J
Quad outTo run out or fill up a line with quadrats. - J
Quad postA size of printing paper equalling four posts, 40 × 32 inches. - J
Quad pottA size of printing paper equalling four potts, 32 × 26 inches. - J
Quad royalA size of printing paper equalling four royals, 50 × 40 inches. - J
Quad smallCards equalling four ‘‘smalls,’’ 7 × 5 inches. - J
QuadrantA small crescent-shaped piece of iron or steel used for the movement of the vibrating roller on a platen machine. - J
Quadrant machinesA small cylindrical printing machine adapted for jobbing purposes made by Messrs. Powell and Son. - J
Quadrat-highAnything, such as spaces or furniture, made to the height of quadrats. - J
QuadratsLarge metal spaces of various sizes for filling up short lines, etc. - J
Quadrats (Sizes of)One, two, three, and four ems of any particular body. - J
QuadrupleAny sheet made four times the size of a smaller sheet, such as quad-demy, etc. - J
QuarterThis has reference to a particular corner of a forme or chase — the cross-bars generally dividing the chase into four equal sections. - J
Quarter boundBooks bound with back only in leather. - J
QuartoA size given when a sheet is folded into four leaves — written shortly, 4to. - J
Quarto galleyA wide galley suitable for works of that size — distinct from slip galley. - J
QuaternionsPaper folded in sections of four sheets, quire fashion. - J
Queen note paperA size of writing paper, 5â…œ × 3½ inches. - J
Qui.Notice to quit — contraction of ‘‘quietus.’’ - J
QuinternionsPaper folded in sections of five sheets, quire fashion. - J
QuireSections of a ream of paper, consisting of twenty-four sheets. - J
Quire fashionSee ‘‘Quirewise.’’ - J
Quire foldedSee ‘‘Quired paper.’’ - J
Quired paperReams of paper folded in quires — not sent in ‘‘flat.’’ - J
QuiresBooks in sheets, i.e. not bound, are said to be in quires. - J
QuirewiseJobs of single leaves printed on both sides of the paper, i.e. as first and third pages. This allows of ‘‘sewing’’ instead of ‘‘stabbing’’ - J
Quoin drawerThe receptacle for holding quoins in the imposing stone. - J
Quoin drawer overseerA name given to the compositor who makes up furnitures, etc. - J
Quoin upTo fit quoins preparatory to locking-up the forme. - J
QuoinsSmall wedges of various sizes, usually of wood, used for tightening or locking-up formes. - J
Quotation justifiersSpaces for justifying lines of quotations. - J
Quotation quadratsAnother name for quotations. - J
QuotationsLarge quadrats, generally of four-line pica and cast hollow, used for making up blanks and short pages. - J
Quoted matterExtracts and other matter placed between ‘‘inverted commas.’’ - J
QuotesThe turned commas (‘‘) and apostrophes (’’) used respectively for quoted matter. - J
RIs the sixteenth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
R. P.These initials stand for ‘‘reprint.’’ - J
RackA row of teeth placed horizontally which cog-wheels fit into as the coffin of a machine runs in and out. - J
RacksReceptacles for holding cases, boards, etc. - J
RagThe bur sometimes left on type by the founder used to be thus called. - J
RagsPieces of old linen or calico used for cleaning machinery. - J
Railway buff paperA common machine-made paper of buff colour, very strong in texture — generally used by railway and other carriers for delivery sheets, etc. - J
RalphAnother name for the ‘‘spirit’’ or evil genius of the ‘‘chapel.’’ - J
RandomA special frame used by compositors in making-up and for putting standing lines and heads on. - J
Range matterTo make lines in composing range equally at either or both ends of the stick. - J
RanksComposing frames are generally arranged in rows or ranks, and a compositor is facetiously said to belong to the ‘‘ranks.’’ - J
RatA slang term for a compositor who works at a lower rate of wages than that generally recognized in a particular locality. - J
Ratchet wheelA small cog-wheel used in the smaller working parts of a machine. - J
RattingWorking at less than recognized scale prices. - J
ReaderThe responsible person who compares and reads the proof by copy, and who also revises corrections made by an author or editor. Also called ‘‘corrector of the press.’’ - J
Reader’s marksThe corrections and alterations — errors and deviations from copy or style — marked on a proof, and distinct from ‘‘author’s marks.’’ - J
Reading boyThe lad who reads the copy to the reader or ‘‘corrector of the press.’’ - J
Reading closetA small compartment within the reading room. Each reader is generally allotted a separate place in order to secure a certain amount of quietness. - J
Reading for pressThe final stage of reading preparatory to printing. - J
Reading roomThe department which includes the reading staff. - J
ReamPaper in parcels or bundles of a certain size — a printer’s ream being 516 sheets. Hand-made and drawing papers slightly differ in the number of sheets, sometimes 472, 480, or 500. - J
ReamageThis term is applied generally to the quantity of a number of reams. - J
Reclothing rollersSubstituting new composition for old on the stocks. - J
RectoThe right-hand pages of any work. - J
Red edgesThe edges of books are sometimes coloured red and burnished. - J
Reel of paperThe paper made in continuous lengths used for rotary printing machines. - J
Reference marksThose signs which are used for foot-notes, as * † ‖ etc. Sometimes superior letters or figures are substituted. - J
RegisterThe exact adjustment of pages back to back in printing the second side of a sheet. - J
Register sheetsThe impressions from a forme used in obtaining correct register. - J
RegletThin wooden furniture up to Two-line Great Primer generally comes under the head of ‘‘reglet.’’ - J
Reglet (Sizes of)Most sizes of types have their equivalent in reglets. - J
Reit (or Ret)A short term for the word ‘‘reiteration,’’ the reverse side of a sheet in printed work. - J
ReiterationThe second side of a sheet in printing. - J
Relative weightsThe difference in weight of any reams between printing, writing, or drawing papers. - J
Relief printingLetterpress and block printing comes under the head of ‘‘relief,’’ as distinct from lithography or plate printing. - J
Religious marksSigns such as ✠, â„Ÿ, â„£ - J
RemovesThe difference between one size of type and another is expressed by this term. - J
Renewing rollersWhen rollers are worn out, the stocks are ‘‘reclothed,’’ or ‘‘renewed’’ with composition. - J
Reprint copyPrinted copy is called ‘‘reprint,’’ as distinct from MS., and a lower price is paid for it in composition. - J
ReprintsApplied generally to works printed for the second or any subsequent edition. - J
ResponseA sign used in prayer books and other religious works, and expressed thus â„Ÿ - J
RetreeThe outside, rejected, or damaged paper of different reams, marked thus ×× in invoicing. - J
ReviseA second or subsequent proof. - J
ReviserThe reader who revises proofs. - J
RibsThe framework on which the press carriage runs in and out. - J
RideWhen leads are pieced in wide measures they sometimes shift and overlap each other. They are then said to ‘‘ride.’’ - J
RiderA rod attached to the ‘‘inker’’ roller on a printing machine. - J
RiggersWheels attached to shafting for transmitting driving power to a machine. - J
Right-hand pagesThose pages with odd folios, e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7, etc. Also called ‘‘recto.’’ - J
RigletAnother and older form of spelling the word ‘‘reglet.’’ - J
Rinsing troughThe trough in which formes are washed. - J
RiseA forme is said to rise when it springs through bad locking up and the type gets off its feet. The term is also used when quadrats and furniture black in printing through imperfect justification. - J
RisersWooden or metal blocks for mounting stereo and other plates. - J
RodA long straight piece of iron or steel connecting two working parts of machinery. - J
RollTo calender or glaze paper or printed work. - J
Rolled paperThe class of paper glazed or calendered for cut work, etc. - J
Roller boxThe receptacle in which rollers are kept to protect them from dust, etc. - J
Roller compositionA compound mainly made of treacle and glue. - J
Roller cupboardA cupboard in which rollers are stored to protect them from glare and dust. - J
Roller forksThe contrivance which holds the roller when working in a printing machine. - J
Roller frameThe iron frame which press rollers are fitted into. - J
Roller inkA common black ink used for the preservation of press rollers when out of use. - J
Roller knifeAn implement used for scraping off the preservative ‘‘roller’’ ink when the roller is required for use. - J
Roller mouldsApparatus of various sizes in which rollers are cast. - J
Roller racksReceptacles for storing rollers when not in use. - J
Roller socketsThe open part of the roller fork in which the spindle rests. - J
Roller spindleThe iron rod on which rollers revolve on the frame or forks. - J
Roller stocksGenerally made of wood and on which the composition is cast. - J
Roller stopA contrivance on a printing machine for stopping or fixing rollers whilst in motion. - J
Roller throw-offAn appliance for stopping or throwing off rollers whilst a machine is running. - J
Roller washingThe act of cleansing rollers. - J
Roller wheelThe wheels on which the rollers revolve in a printing machine. - J
RollersThe apparatus for distributing and applying the ink to a forme in printing. - J
Rolling machineA machine for glazing or calendering paper or printed work. - J
Rolling washing troughA special trough made for this purpose. - J
RomanThe particular kind of type in which book and other work is composed (such as this fount), as distinguished from italic or fancy types. Called ‘‘antiqua’’ by the Germans. - J
Roman casesThe cases for these founts as distinguished from italic cases. - J
Roman numeralsThe pagination of the preliminary matter of a volume is generally expressed by these characters, thus — i, ii, iii, iv, etc. - J
RondeA fancy character of type somewhat similar to a script. - J
Rope paperStrong packing paper of various sizes made largely of old rope. - J
RotaryA short term for rotary printing machines. - J
Rotary gathererA revolving circular table for gathering sheets into books. - J
Rotary machineCylindrical machines for printing from a continuous roll or web of paper. - J
RottenTerm applied to unsound impression in printing. - J
RounceThe handle by means of which the press carriage is run in and out. - J
RoyalA size of printing paper, 25 × 20 inches; writing paper, 24 × 19 inches. - J
Rub out inkTo rub by means of the brayer the ink on the ink table previous to distribution. - J
Rubber stampsHand stamps cast in vulcanized india-rubber. - J
Rubber typeSeparate types cast in vulcanized india-rubber and generally mounted on metal bodies. - J
Rubricated lettersCapital letters printed in red ink. - J
Rubricated matterSentences or paragraphs printed in red ink. - J
RubricsThe directions placed in a prayer book, which were formerly — and are now sometimes — printed in red ink. - J
RubyA size of type one size larger than Pearl and one size smaller than Nonpareil, equal to half a Small Pica in body. - J
RuckA sheet is said to ‘‘ruck’’ when it gets creased or doubled in laying on. - J
Rule bordersA frame, usually of brass rule, fitted round a page. - J
Rule caseTrays for holding brass rule of the usual size of type cases. - J
Rule cutterAn apparatus for cutting brass rule into short lengths. - J
Rule workComposition in which rules are largely used, such as table-work, which see. - J
Ruled paperPapers of different kinds with various rulings, used for account books, etc. - J
RulesA general term for rules — brass, type, or wood. - J
RulingThe art of printing lines in any colour or direction on paper. - J
Ruling machineThe apparatus for ruling purposes. - J
Run a waste throughThis is done in order to get good and even ‘‘colour’’ before starting printing. - J
Run in carriageTo move the forme carriage or coffin under the platen or cylinder. - J
Run onAn intimation that a sentence is not to commence a fresh paragraph, or chapters are not to commence on a different page. - J
Run on chaptersAn intimation that the commencement of chapters in a work are not necessarily to begin on a fresh page. - J
Run on solidTo continue without break or leads any particular matter. - J
Run on sortsAn extraordinary demand for any particular letter or letters in composing. - J
Run outTo fill up or ‘‘run out’’ a line with quadrats or full points. Also to ‘‘run out’’ of sorts. - J
Run out and indentTo set matter the reverse of ordinary paragraphs by putting the first line full out and indenting the subsequent lines. - J
Run out carriageTo move back the forme carriage or coffin from under the platen or cylinder. - J
Run out with full pointsTo fill up a line with full points, as in ‘‘contents’’ matter. - J
Run out with leadersTo fill up a line with ‘‘leaders.’’ - J
Run up colourTo distribute ink and to prepare for printing. - J
RunicA character of type between Greek and Gothic. - J
RunnersIn press-work a line of corks to prevent the roller from depositing an excess of ink on the edges of the pages. In a machine, a flat row of teeth for working cog-wheels in. - J
Running headlineThe fixed or general title of the volume as distinct from the chapter or section headline. - J
Running titleSee ‘‘Running headline.’’ - J
Runs inMatter is said to ‘‘run in’’ when it ‘‘gets in,’’ or makes less than an anticipated quantity. - J
RussiaA leather largely used for binding books. - J
RussianThe particular character of type used for composing works in that language. - J
Russian casesCases of special lay for type used in composing that language. - J
Ruthven pressThis was a hand-press patented by Mr. Ruthven many years ago. Its principle consisted in the platen being brought over the forme, which was stationary, instead of the forme being run in. - J
SIs the seventeenth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
S. O. papersAn abbreviation for the special class of papers used by the government ‘‘stationery office.’’. - J
S. p.An abbreviation used for ‘‘small paper’’ when there are two or more sizes of paper used for any work. - J
Safety-valveThis is a valve through which steam would escape if its pressure exceeded the maximum power, and thus give warning of danger. - J
SamaritanAn ancient character of letter said to have been used by the early Hebrews, types of which can be obtained. - J
Samaritan casesCases of special lay used for composing works in that language. - J
SamplesThis term is generally applied to pattern or specimen sheets of paper. - J
SanscritThe ancient language of Hindostan, Types of its written characters can be obtained. - J
Sanscrit casesCases of special lay for composing works in that language. - J
Sat.Abbreviation of the word ‘‘satisfaction,’’ sometimes used by printers to express a revengeful feeling. - J
SawThe small tenon saw used for cutting up furniture, etc. It also sometimes refers to the ‘‘circular saw.’’ - J
Saw benchThe stand or table where the sawing is done. - J
Saw blockA block of wood in which slots are cut, used for sawing up furniture on. - J
SaxonThe particular character of type used for composing works in that language. - J
Saxon casesCases of special lay used for composing works in that language. - J
ScabbardAn old term for the more modern word ‘‘scale-board,’’ which see. - J
ScabbyA term applied to uneven and rotten colour in printing. - J
Scale priceSpecific prices adjusted to the recognized scale as agreed to by employers and employed, varying according to locality. - J
Scale-boardVery thin strips of wooden furniture used for obtaining close register in printing. - J
ScanA short term for the ‘‘Scandinavian’’ printing machine. - J
ScandinavianA printing machine with single cylinder, introduced many years ago into this country by the inventor — a Scandinavian. - J
Scarce sortsAny particular letter or letters which are in great demand through a ‘‘run on sorts.’’ - J
ScissorsThe ordinary domestic implements — used by printers in making ready at press or machine. - J
Scoring machineA mechanical apparatus for scoring cards to allow of folding without breaking. - J
Scrape upTo clean a roller by scraping off the coat of protecting ink. - J
Scratch commaA sign thus / used in old documents and reprints. It is now used as a shilling mark. - J
Screw chasesChases mostly used for newspaper work, fitted with screws to obviate the use of wooden quoins. - J
Screw composing stickThe old-fashioned composing stick is fastened up by means of a screw with a slotted head. - J
Screw pressA press in which the power is obtained by means of a screw. - J
Screw quoinsA term for the screw substitutes for wooden quoins. - J
Screw stickSee ‘‘Screw composing stick.’’ - J
ScriptSloping type similar in character to handwriting. - J
ScroofingA slang expression used to denote searching for scarce sorts instead of distributing. - J
Scruple markA medical sign, thus ℈ - J
Second at pressAt hand-press the partner who subordinates himself to the ‘‘first,’’ or leading hand. - J
Second formeIn sheet work the second side in printing. - J
Seconds markA double acute accent is used for this purpose, thus ˝ - J
SectionA reference mark for footnotes, thus § It is used also to mark divisions in a chapter. - J
SectorA short term for the ‘‘sector’’ printing machine. - J
Sector machineA cylindrical printing machine. - J
Selected parchmentsPicked parchments — those used for writing purposes. - J
Selected vellumsPicked vellums — those used for writing purposes. - J
SelenotypeA fantastic type, sometimes called ‘‘chaostype.’’ - J
Self inkingApparatus attached to any machine to dispense with the application of ink by hand. - J
Sem.An abbreviation used for the word ‘‘semicolon.’’ - J
SemicolonA mark of punctuation, thus ; - J
SetA recognized term for ‘‘composed’’ — to ‘‘set’’ type is to ‘‘compose’’ it. - J
Set cleanMatter composed with few mistakes. - J
Set closeMatter composed with closer than average spacing. - J
Set foulMatter composed carelessly — the reverse of ‘‘clean.’’ - J
Set offWhen the ink off-sets from one sheet to another. - J
Set outTo compose all the type out of a case, or to arrange and white out any particular job. - J
Set upA common term used instead of the word ‘‘compose.’’ - J
Set up closeWhen an intervening ‘‘take’’ of copy is finished, it is said to be ‘‘set up close,’’ that is, to the next ‘‘take.’’ - J
Set wideTo space wider than the average in composing type. - J
Set-off paperSee ‘‘Set-off sheets.’’ - J
Set-off sheetsSpecial sheets used to prevent the off-set from sheet to sheet when printed. - J
Sets up to himselfThis is a term used when a compositor has received two consecutive ‘‘takes’’ of copy, and thus ‘‘sets’’ up the first to his second portion. - J
Setting rulesThe brass rules used in setting type and shifted line by line as finished. - J
SewerThe person, usually a female, who does the sewing preparatory to binding. - J
SewnA term applied to anything sewn — not stitched or stabbed — in binding. - J
ShaftingThe revolving turned-iron pole suspended horizontally to convey the driving power to the machines. - J
ShakeA slur on a printed sheet through some defect in the impression. - J
ShammockAn old expression for to ‘‘mike,’’ or to be idle. - J
ShankThe body of the letter or type. - J
ShearsThe ordinary implements — used for cutting leads or brass rule. - J
SheepsfootAn iron hammer with a claw at the foot. - J
Sheet and a halfRegular sizes of paper made to a size half as much again to facilitate and economize in working off odd sizes or odd pages. - J
Sheet dipsWhen a sheet does not lie quite flat, and ‘‘dips’’ into the broken or open spaces of a forme, and either ‘‘blacks’’ or throws the register out. - J
Sheet the rollerAn operation necessary in order to take off superfluous ink from a roller. - J
Sheet workApplied to works or jobs printed both sides — the reverse of half-sheet or ‘‘work and turn.’’ - J
SheetedThis expression is used when heavily printed work has to be placed sheet by sheet between other sheets to prevent off-set of ink. - J
ShellThe thin film of copper that forms the face of an electrotype, and which is afterwards backed up with lead to the required thickness. - J
ShelvingTo undercharge the amount of work done, and carry it forward to the next week’s bill. - J
Sherwin and Cope’s pressA old iron hand-press, called ‘‘Imperial press.’’ - J
Shilling markThe sign thus / which was used in old books as a ‘‘scratch comma.’’ - J
Ship (’Ship)An abbreviation of the word ‘‘companionship’’ — a body of men working on that system. - J
ShoeAn old boot or shoe is sometimes used as a receptacle for battered and broken letters. - J
ShooterShort term used for the word ‘‘shooting stick.’’ - J
Shooting stickThe implement — generally made of box-wood, but sometimes of metal — used with the mallet in locking-up formes. - J
Short crossThe shortest and widest of the two cross-bars in any chase. - J
Short measuresNarrow widths of type come under this head, such as are used for double or treble columns. - J
Short numbersSmall numbers in printing, such as 250 or 500. - J
Short pageA page of type not the full length of the gauge, as at the end of a chapter, or a line short by reason of the exigencies of making-up. - J
Short pullWhen the bar-handle of the press is not pulled over to its full length. - J
Short sortsWhen there is a run on any particular letter or letters, and they become scarce. - J
Short takesIn order to expedite the getting out of work in composing rooms, the men are sometimes given short portions of copy. - J
Short twelvesA plan of imposition whereby the pages are laid down in three short rows of four. - J
ShortsA term applied to letters with the ‘‘short’’ accent over them, thus ă Ä• Ä­ ŏ Å­ - J
Shoulder notesMarginal notes placed at the top comer of the page. - J
Shoulder of typeThe flat top of the shank of a type from whence the bevel to the face starts. - J
ShufflingAnother term for fanning out preparatory to knocking-up work in the warehouse. - J
Side FluesThe lower flues which run on either side of the boiler and open on to the front. - J
Side layThe margin of a given measurement on one side of a sheet in printing. - J
Side markThe fixed mark at the side which a sheet is laid to in printing on a machine. - J
Side-notesMarginal notes as distinct from ‘‘foot-notes.’’ - J
Side-SticksSloping sticks of wood used for quoining up against in imposing a forme. - J
SignatureThe letter or figure in the white line of the first page of a sheet, to guide binder in folding — also used by printers to identify any particular sheet. - J
Signature lineThe line of quadrats at the bottom of a page in which the signature letter or figure is placed. - J
Signature pageThe first page of a sheet, on which the signature appears. - J
SignsCharacters used in relation to astronomy, algebra, medicine, etc., come under this head. - J
SigsA short term for ‘‘signatures.’’ - J
Silver bronzeA metallic powder used for silver printing. - J
Single cylinder machinesMachines for printing one side at a time only, as distinct from perfecting or rotary ones. - J
Single frameA half frame for holding only one pair of cases up at a time. - J
Sit.An abbreviation for the word ‘‘situation,’’ an engagement for work. - J
Six-to-pica brassBrass rule cast six to a Pica. - J
Six-to-pica leadsLeads cast six to a Pica. - J
Sixteen-to-pica leadsVery thin leads cast sixteen to a pica, and called ‘‘hair leads.’’ - J
SixteenmoA sheet folded into sixteen leaves — written shortly, 16mo. - J
SixteensA familiar way of expressing ‘‘sixteenmo.’’ - J
Sixty-fourmoA sheet folded into sixty-four leaves — written shortly, 64mo. - J
SizeThe preparation used for printing with bronze. - J
Sized paperPaper made with a certain proportion of size added, according to instructions for a ‘‘hard’’ or ‘‘soft’’ sized article. - J
Sizes of cardsSuch as thirds, town, small, large, etc. - J
Sizes of jobsDifferent sizes, as octavo, quarto, folio, etc. - J
Sizes of paperRegular sizes, as pott, foolscap, demy, medium, royal, imperial, etc., also made in double and quadruple. - J
Sizes of typeSee Minnikin, Brilliant, Gem, Diamond, Pearl, Ruby, Nonpareil, Minion, Brevier, Bourgeois, Long Primer, Small Pica, Pica, English, Great Primer, Paragon, Double Pica, Two-line Pica, etc. - J
Skeleton faceThin-faced letter used for jobbing purposes. - J
Skeleton formeA special forme — usually of a broken and open nature — made up for a subsequent printing in another colour of ink. - J
SkinksAn old term applied to drink — or drinking around the imposing stone in order to celebrate some auspicious occasion. - J
SlabThe surface on which the ink is distributed. - J
SliceA flat wide iron knife used for lifting ink out of the can. - J
Slice galleyAn old-fashioned galley with a thin additional bottom to facilitate the sliding of pages on to the imposing stone. - J
Slip chasesLong narrow chases made specially for ‘‘heading’’ work. - J
Slip galleyA long galley the reverse of a quarto or square galley. - J
SlipsApplied to matter not made up into pages, but pulled as proofs in long slips. - J
Slog onWhen a person is working hurriedly he is said to have a ‘‘slog on’’ — a slang expression. - J
SlugsNumbered divisions of metal between different takes of copy. - J
SlummingA slang term used to describe the secreting of type or sorts. - J
SlurWhen a printed sheet is blurred or smeared — also called a ‘‘shake.’’ - J
Small cap. O.An expression frequently used for an under- or sub-overseer. - J
Small capitalsThe smaller capitals laid in the upper case, distinct from the full capitals, thus PRINTING, and indicated in MS. by two lines == underneath. - J
Small capsShort term for ‘‘Small capitals,’’ which see. - J
Small cardsA size of card, 3½ × 2½ inches. - J
Small court envelopesEnvelopes to take small post 8vo in half, 4¾ × 3¾ inches. - J
Small double postA size of printing paper, 29 × 19 inches. - J
Small hand paperA common machine-made paper, generally straw-coloured, used for post wrappers and such purposes. - J
Small numbersShort numbers, as 250 and 500, in printing, as distinguished from ‘‘long numbers.’’ - J
Small PicaA size of type one size larger than Long Primer and one size smaller than Pica, equal to half the body of a Double Pica. - J
Small postA size of writing paper, 16½ × 13½ inches. - J
Small-faced figuresFigures of any particular size cast on a larger body than the fount they belong to. - J
SmoutA compositor who seeks odd jobs in various houses. See ‘‘Grass hand’’ - J
Soaking pullA long and easy pull over of the bar-handle of a printing press. - J
Soc.An abbreviation for the word ‘‘society,’’ — the trade society. - J
Society handsThose belonging to and working under the rules of a trade society. - J
Society housesEstablishments conforming to the rules and paying the recognized scale price for work. - J
Soft brassBrass rule which can be easily manipulated, specially manufactured for fancy work. - J
Soft paperPaper distinct from hard or sized paper. - J
Soft pullAn easy pull over of the bar-handle of a printing press. - J
Soft sized paperSpecial printing paper manufactured with a very little admixture of size. - J
Soft tintsThe lighter parts of an illustration. - J
SolaceA penalty imposed by the chapel for the infringement of any of its rules. - J
Solid digA lean or bad ‘‘take’’ of copy. - J
Solid matterType composed without leads; also applied to type with but few quadrats in. - J
SolidsThe blacker or more solid parts of a woodcut or other illustration. - J
Sop the ballsAn expression used when too much ink was taken on the balls. - J
SortsThe general term applied to any particular letter or letters as distinguished from a complete fount. - J
SoundingsPressmen are said to be in ‘‘soundings’’ when they get near the bottom of their heap and their knuckles rap the horse. - J
SoupyA term of disparagement applied to thin or poor ink. - J
Space bargeA piece of card or thick paper used to hold spaces on whilst correcting a forme. - J
Space boxA small tray with six or eight divisions — a handy substitute for the ‘‘space barge.’’ - J
Space linesLeads used for spacing out are sometimes thus termed. - J
Space outTo widen or open out space between words or lines. - J
Space paperAnother term for ‘‘space barge.’’ - J
Space rulesPlain or fancy rules cast type high for filling up blank spaces and dividing sections or chapters. - J
SpacesMetal blanks cast to different thicknesses of their own bodies for placing between words and filling up lines. - J
Spaces (Sizes of)Thick, middling, thin, and hair spaces. - J
Spanish n.A capital or lower case n with a curly accent, thus — ñ. - J
SpannersThe tool used for fastening or unfastening any nut or screw attached to a machine. - J
SpatterworkA method of transferring leaves of plants or any metal letters to paper. - J
Specimen pageIn order to decide the shape, size, and style of a new work it is usual to submit a sample page. - J
Speed riggersRiggers graduated to allow of the driving band being shifted to increase or reduce the running power. - J
SpiritThe evil genius of a chapel. See ‘‘Ralph.’’ - J
Split riggerRiggers made in two equal portions and screwed together in order to facilitate shifting or changing. - J
SpoilageApplied to the sheets spoilt in printing, sometimes called ‘‘waste.’’ - J
SpongeThe ordinary domestic article used in damping type for distribution. Also for sponging rollers. - J
Sponge upRollers when stale are sometimes improved by sponging with cold water. - J
Spottiswoode pressAn old platen printing machine invented by Mr. Andrew Spottiswoode. - J
SpringThe mechanism which gives a recoil to any press or machine. - J
Spring boxThe receptacle at the head of the press holding the spring which acts on the bar-handle. - J
Spring brassRules cast in flexible brass — the reverse of ‘‘soft’’ or ‘‘bending’’ brass rule. - J
Spring of a formeA forme of type or plates is liable to ‘‘spring,’’ or go off its feet, if not properly locked up. - J
Spring pointsThese are a special kind of press points which assist in throwing the sheet off the spur of the point as printed. - J
Sprinkled edgesCut edges of books are sometimes finely sprinkled with colour to prevent them getting soiled. - J
SpurThe short pin at the end of the point which pricks the hole in the sheet for registering purposes. - J
SquabbleTo break or upset type and thus make ‘‘pie’’ of it. - J
Square twelvesTwelvemo laid down in imposition the ‘‘short’’ or ‘‘square’’ way, in contradistinction to ‘‘long twelves.’’ - J
SquashedAnother term for ‘‘squabbled’’ type. - J
StabbedA form of stitching by piercing or stabbing, used mostly for cheap pamphlet work. - J
StacksPaper or printed work arranged in ‘‘stacks.’’ See ‘‘Pile.’’ - J
StageA wooden platform a few inches high used for building stacks of paper or printed work on. - J
Staining paperAn euphemism for ‘‘printing,’’ used as a toast at festivals of master printers in the olden time. - J
StampsA somewhat amateurish synonym for type. - J
Standard machineA small jobbing cylindrical machine made by Mr. F. Ullmer. - J
StandingFormes not distributed after printing are said to be ‘‘standing.’’ - J
Standing pressScrew presses used in the warehouse for pressing. - J
Stands highIn printing, type or blocks not to correct height, but a little too high. - J
Stands lowThe reverse of ‘‘stands high,’’ which see. - J
Stands stillA press or machine out of use. Also a work-man delayed or out of work. - J
Stanhope pressThe first iron platen hand-press, invented by Earl Stanhope in the early part of this century. - J
Staple of pressThe frame or uprights of a hand printing press. - J
StarAn asterisk, thus * (used as a reference or otherwise). - J
StartLeaves of books are said to ‘‘start’’ when the sewing is defective and the leaves are loose. - J
Start workingTo commence working or printing a fresh sheet or job on press or machine. - J
Steam chestThe small inverted chest placed on the top of the boiler in which the steam accumulates before passing from the boiler. - J
Steam cocksThe taps in front of the boiler by which the steam can be tested. - J
Steam engineThe motor driven by means of this power. - J
Steam gaugeThe dial which indicates the pressure of steam in the boiler. - J
Steam gearingThe apparatus in connection with a machine for driving it by steam power, i.e. the rigger, striker, etc. - J
Steam jacketingA composition coating laid on the boiler to keep the heat in. - J
Steam pipesSpecial wrought-iron pipes adapted for steam, generally painted red. - J
Steam printingAny kind of printing executed by means of that power — the reverse of hand-work. - J
Steel composing rulesSee ‘‘Steel rules.’’ - J
Steel quoinsA patented mechanical contrivance for locking up formes by means of a key applied to shaped pieces of steel which fit in a kind of rack. - J
Steel rulesComposing rules are sometimes made of this material. - J
Stem of letterThe up and down strokes of any letter. - J
StereoA short term for the word ‘‘stereotypes.’’ - J
Stereo apparatusPlant and tools necessary for stereo-typing. - J
Stereo catchesShort pieces, generally of brass, with a shoulder for holding plates in the required position. - J
Stereo chasesSpecial chases made for use in stereotyping. - J
Stereo clumpsType-high pieces of metal which protect the edges of pages and form the bevel of the plate. - J
Stereo flongThe prepared paper which forms the matrix or mould for stereotyping by the paper process. - J
Stereo furnitureMetal furniture used for stereotyping purposes. - J
Stereo metalThe metal used for stereotyping, as distinct from type-metal, which is of better and harder quality. - J
Stereo metal blocksMetal ‘‘risers’’ or blocks on which to impose stereotype plates. See ‘‘French furniture.’’ - J
Stereo mounting boardsA large board — usually of mahogany — on which sets of plates are fastened down to a certain gauge. - J
Stereo mountsThe material — wood or metal — used for mounting stereotype plates. - J
Stereo pinsThe brads or ‘‘French tacks’’ used for fastening stereotype or electrotype plates on blocks. - J
Stereo wood blocksWooden blocks with brass catches on which stereotype plates are mounted — distinct from ‘‘metal’’ blocks. - J
StereotypesCasts of pages of type, etc., in metal, either by the ‘‘plaster’’ or ‘‘paper’’ processes. - J
StetA Latin word used to denote the cancelling of any correction marked in copy or proof, and indicated by dots underneath, thus . . . . . - J
StickA familiar expression for ‘‘composing stick.’’ - J
StickfulWhen the composing stick is full, the quantity of type is thus termed. - J
SticksA slang term used by printers for rollers when out of condition. - J
StitchedA form of fastening up pamphlets, as distinct from ‘‘sewing’’ or ‘‘stabbing.’’ - J
Stock roomThe department allotted to the storing of paper or printed stock. - J
StokeholeThe place — often not better than a hole — where the stoker attends to the fire. - J
StoneA short term used for either stone or iron imposing surfaces. - J
StoolA platform or stage on which paper or printed work is stacked. - J
Stop impressionThe arrangement applied, to a machine for throwing off the impression whilst it is running. - J
Stopping cylinderA mechanical contrivance for stopping or fixing the cylinder whilst the machine is running. - J
Stops (points)A general term embracing all punctuation marks. - J
Store-keeperThe person responsible for the care of type and other materials in a printing office. - J
Store-roomThe department for storing type, leads, furniture, etc. - J
Straight accentsAnother term for long accents, thus — ā Ä“ Ä« ō Å« - J
Straight-edgeA long wooden or metal stick used for squaring up the pages in a forme in order to obtain correct register in printing. - J
StrawboardYellow boards of various weights used for binding purposes, principally made of straw. - J
StrikerThe apparatus attached to a machine for ‘‘striking on,’’ or putting it in motion. - J
StrikesA term for type matrices struck from the original punches. - J
StringA slang word much used by printers to express a hoax or ‘‘sell.’’ - J
Strip a formeTo take away the furniture from the pages of a forme, and thus leave it naked. - J
StrokerA small implement, generally made of wood and tipped with metal, for ‘‘stroking in,’’ or laying on sheets in a printing machine. - J
Stroker inThe layer-on who strokes in the sheets one by one to be printed. - J
StrokesThe up and down lines of any letter. - J
Strong inkSee ‘‘Hard ink.’’ - J
Style of the houseMost printing offices have their own particular method in the matter of display, spelling, etc. - J
Sub-titleThe bastard or half-title placed before the general title of a work. Also called ‘‘fly-title.’’ - J
SummerA piece of wood fastened under the ribs of a wooden press close to the ‘‘winter.’’ - J
Sun machineA small platen jobbing machine — for treadle or steam — made by Messrs. Greenwood and Batley. - J
Sunday workAn extra charge beyond overtime money is charged for working on this day. - J
Super royalA size of printing paper, 27½ × 20½ inches; writing, 27 × 19 inches. - J
Super-calendered paperHighly rolled paper for dry printing. - J
Superior figuresSmall figures cast on the shoulder of type, generally used for footnote reference, thus — ¹ ² ³ - J
SuperiorsA short term embracing both superior letters and superior figures. - J
SurfaceA short term for imposing surface or ‘‘stone.’’ - J
Surface boardsSee ‘‘Surface cards.’’ - J
Surface cardsCardboards not coloured right through, but merely the top and bottom sheets, sometimes one side only — distinct from ‘‘pulp boards.’’ - J
Surfaced paperPaper with any prepared surface, coloured or otherwise. - J
SweepingsApplied to the paper rubbish swept up, and sometimes to the pie picked up from the floor. - J
SwiftsGood and fast compositors were sometimes thus denominated. - J
SymbolsSigns or marks peculiar to any particular science. - J
SyriacThe particular founts of type used for composing works in that language. - J
Syriac caseCases of special lay for composing works in that language. - J
TIs the eighteenth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
T. O.These letters are an abbreviation of the word ‘‘turn-over.’’ - J
Table of pressThe coffin or bed of a press upon which the forme is placed for printing. - J
Table workMatter of four or more columns, which reckons as double composition in casting up. - J
Tabular workThree-column matter, which reckons a quarter or half extra in value of composition according to its nature. - J
TackyRollers to be in proper condition ought to be ‘‘tacky,’’ that is, should be slightly adhesive to the touch. - J
Tail-piecesOrnaments used for filling up short pages. - J
TailsThe bottom or tail-end of a book. - J
TakeEach portion of copy falling to the share of a compositor. - J
Take downTo take work down from the drying poles in the warehouse department. - J
Take up copyWhen a compositor has finished distributing he is said to be ready to ‘‘take up copy.’’ - J
Taker offThe person, usually a lad, who receives the sheets as printed off, and places them on the heap. - J
Taking a figureA method of balloting by shaking up and drawing certain figures from a workman’s apron, in lieu of throwing by quadrats, to determine shares of fat, etc. - J
Taking offThe act of taking the sheets and placing them straight as printed off. - J
Taking-off apparatusThe special arrangement for automatically ‘‘taking off’’ the sheets as printed. - J
Taking-off boardThe board on which the sheets are laid as printed off. - J
Tape wandersWhen any of the tapes of a machine get astray the fact is thus expressed. - J
TapesThe narrow webbing which carries the sheets from the laying-on to the taking-off board on a machine. - J
Tea papersOrdinary paper cut to set sizes for holding certain weights of that article. - J
Technical classesClasses formed for imparting a practical knowledge of printing. - J
Technical phrasesTrade expressions, distinct from ‘‘Technical terms,’’ which see. - J
Technical termsTerms applied strictly to trade materials, implements, machinery, etc. See ‘‘Technical phrases.’’ - J
Teeth of cogThe flange of a cog-wheel, which has its edge cut diamond shape so that it shall fit into the corresponding parts of another wheel. - J
Ten-to-pica leadsLeads cast ten to a pica in depth of body. - J
TernionsA bibliographical expression for three sheets folded together in folio. - J
The closetA term applied generally to the managerial department, but sometimes to the ‘‘reading closet.’’ - J
The houseThe general term to express the firm as distinct from anything in connection with the workmen. - J
Thick leadsLeads cast four to the pica in thickness are generally thus termed, though thicker leads or clumps are cast. - J
Thick spacesSpaces cast three to an em of any particular body — the average space used between words. - J
Thin and middling spacesThese spaces are cast respectively five and four to an em of their own body, and are kept mixed together in one box in the lower case. - J
Thin leadsLeads cast eight to the pica in thickness are generally thus termed, though thinner leads are cast. - J
Thin spacesSpaces cast five to an em of their own body. - J
Thirds cardsA size of card — cut 3 × 1½ inches — used as a ‘‘gentleman’s’’ visiting or address card. - J
Thirty-twomoA sheet of paper folded into thirty-two leaves, written shortly thus — 32mo. - J
ThousandsIn casting up the value of composition type is reckoned by thousands — ems in depth and ens in width. - J
Three-colour machinesMachines adapted for printing in any three colours. - J
Three-columnMatter set in treble columns. - J
Three-em bracesBraces cast on three ems of their own body. - J
Three-em quadsQuadrats cast to three ems of any particular body. - J
Three-em spacesSpaces — sometimes called ‘‘thick spaces’’ — cast three to an em of any particular body. - J
Three-line lettersLetters used as initials at the commencement of a book or chapter, and let into the text to the depth of three lines. - J
Three-quarter frameA single frame with case rack attached. - J
Throw inA direction to ‘‘throw in’’ or distribute type. Also an instruction to let a page stand into the back margin. - J
ThroW outTo turn out bad work or work spoilt in printing. Also applied to pages when thrown out into the margin beyond the usual measurement. - J
Throw upAn instruction to give prominence to any particular line or lines in displaying. - J
Throwing in letterA synonym for ‘‘distributing’’ type. - J
Throwing in typeSee ‘‘Throwing in letter.’’ - J
Throwing quadratsPerformed with nine em quadrats, which are shaken in the hand and thrown on the imposing surface, the nick side when uppermost only being reckoned. - J
Thumb lever composing stickA composing stick fastened by means of a small lever, instead of the screw with slotted head. - J
Thumb pieceThe ear or piece of the frisket which is caught in turning up or down the frisket on the hand-press. - J
Thumb screw composing stickA composing stick fastened with a thumb screw, instead of the usual screw with slotted head, and distinct from the ‘‘thumb lever.’’ - J
Tickle’s bedsA shorter term for ‘‘Tickle’s stereo beds,’’ invented by Mr. Tickle. - J
Tickle’s stereo bedsLarge planed iron beds, with slots to allow of catches sliding to any particular part, for mounting stereotype plates. - J
Tie upPages of type when made up are for convenience of handling tied up with page cord and placed on the stone or imposing surface. - J
Tight justificationMatter justified more tightly than necessary. - J
Tighten quoinsTo fasten up quoins with the fingers preparatory to locking up, or in hot weather to tighten up quoins to prevent formes falling out. - J
TillsThe cell-like divisions on the top side of the platen of a hand printing press. - J
Time-workWork paid for by a fixed price per hour — distinct from ‘‘piece-work.’’ - J
Tint blocksBlocks or surfaces used for printing coloured backgrounds. - J
Tint surfacesSee ‘‘Tint blocks.’’ - J
Tinted cardsPulp cardboards of various colours — distinct from surface boards. - J
Tissue paperThe very thin paper used for interleaving plates in books. - J
TitleThe page which describes the work and gives the publisher’s name and the date of publication. - J
Title headThe blank space at the top of a ruled form or invoice left for the printing of the title. - J
Title-sheetThe preliminary sheet of a work, that which contains the title, preface, contents, etc. - J
Titling letterTypes used for displaying titles, advertisements, etc. - J
To make marginTo make the margins of a forme up to a certain scale. - J
To make registerTo manipulate the margin so as to ensure perfect register or backing of pages in printing. - J
To quad outTo space out with quadrats. - J
To the badWhen a workman is in arrear or has been ‘‘horsing’’ work. - J
To the goodWhen anything is to the credit of a workman. - J
Tobacco papersOrdinary paper of set sizes used by tobacconists for holding certain weights of that article. - J
TokenTwo hundred and fifty impressions are reckoned as such. - J
Token sheetA turned-down sheet in a ream of paper indicating ‘‘a token.’’ - J
Tombstone styleA monumental style of displaying type. - J
TommyAn iron implement for tightening up screws. It has a bole through the head instead of a slot. - J
Toned paperPaper made with a decided tone of different shades — distinct from white or creamy paper. - J
Top boardsThe upper boards used for laying-on on a printing machine. - J
Top coverThe upper or front cover of a book in binding. - J
Top edgesThe head or top of a book, in contradistinction to fore-edge or tails. - J
Top giltA description for a book when the top edge only is gilded. - J
Top sideThe front side of the cover of a book in binding. - J
TopsIn stacking work as printed off the warehouseman places a few sheets of each signature on the top, so that they may be at hand if a set of advanced sheets are asked for, thereby obviating the lifting of a quantity of work. - J
TowgoodA make of writing paper manufactured by a person of that name. - J
Town cardsA size of jobbing card, cut 3 × 2 inches. - J
Tracing clothA prepared cloth used for tracing purposes. - J
Tracing paperA prepared thin, transparent paper used by draughtsmen for tracing drawings. - J
Trade customsRecognized privileges which have become customary by long usage. - J
TrafalgarA size of type one size larger than Two-line Double Pica and one size smaller than Canon. - J
Trans.An abbreviation of the word ‘‘transpose’’ used in the reading-room. - J
Transfer inkSpecial ink for pulling transfers of type or plates for lithographic purposes. - J
Transfer paperPrepared paper for pulling transfers of type or plates for lithographic purposes. - J
TransposeTo shift words, lines, leads, or any portion of matter. - J
TravelThe length or ‘‘go’’ traversed by a machine in printing. - J
TreadleThe crank which imparts motion to a machine by means of the foot. - J
Treadle machineSmall machines worked by the foot, as distinct from those driven by any other power. - J
Treble casesSpecial upper cases made to hold three sets of capitals. - J
Treble-columnMatter set in three columns. - J
Trigesimo-secundoThe bibliographical term for ‘‘thirty-twomo,’’ written shortly 32mo. - J
Trimmed edgesEdges of books cut or trimmed sufficiently to make them tidy without opening heads or bolts. - J
Trimmed rollersRollers for machine printing are generally pared at the ends to prevent the composition tearing off the stocks. - J
TroughReceptacles for wetting down paper or for holding lye. - J
Trs.Another abbreviation of the word ‘‘transpose.’’ - J
Tub-sized paperPaper sized by hand after making — distinct from engine-sized paper. - J
TumblerA general term for a printing machine with a D-cylinder — one that does not revolve, but reverses in its motion. - J
Turned commasThese are used at the commencement of an extract or quoted matter, thus ‘‘ - J
Turned outIf in distributing type a larger number than usual is yielded of any particular sort; or in printing, sheets thrown out. - J
Turned sortsWhen a particular letter becomes scarce, another letter is temporarily substituted with its nick reversed. - J
Turnover apprenticesOstensibly apprentices who have been turned over from one firm to another through death or change. - J
TurnsA short term for turned commas or turned sorts. - J
TurnscrewA small flat piece of steel for fastening or un-fastening the screws of composing sticks. - J
TurpentineThe spirit used for cleansing ink from wood-cuts, etc., after printing. - J
TurpsAn abbreviation of the word ‘‘turpentine.’’ - J
TurtleA part of the cylinder in a rotary printing machine. - J
TuscanA fancy open-faced jobbing type. - J
TweezersSmall and finely-pointed nippers used by compositors for correcting tabular work. - J
Twelve-to-pica leadsLeads cast twelve to a pica in thickness. - J
TwelvemoA sheet of paper folded into twelve leaves, written thus — 12mo. Also called ‘‘duodecimo.’’ - J
Twelvemo chasesChases with two cross-bars unequally divided. - J
TwelvesA familiar term for ‘‘twelvemo.’’ - J
Twelves pointsPress points made on an elbow. - J
Twenty-fourmoA sheet folded into twenty-four leaves, written thus — 24mo. - J
TwentymoA sheet folded into twenty leaves — written shortly 20mo. - J
TwicerA term of contempt for a man who professes to work both at case and press. - J
Two onTo facilitate and economize printing, small jobs are sometimes worked in duplicate. - J
Two setSee ‘‘Two on.’’ - J
Two-colour machinesMachines adapted for printing in any two colours at one operation. - J
Two-columnMatter arranged in double columns. - J
Two-em bracesBraces cast on two ems of any particular body. - J
Two-em quadsQuadrats cast to two ems of any particular body. - J
Two-feeder machinesMachines adapted for two distinct layings-on. - J
Two-line BourgeoisA size of type one size larger than Two-line Brevier and one size smaller than Two-line Long Primer — equal to Great Primer in depth of body. - J
Two-line BrevierA size of type one size larger than Two-line Minion and one size smaller than Two-line Bourgeois — equal to two Breviers in depth of body. - J
Two-line DiamondA size of type one size smaller than Two-line Pearl and equal to Bourgeois in depth of body. - J
Two-line Double PicaA size of type one size larger than Two-line Great Primer and one size smaller than Trafalgar — equal to four Small Picas in depth of body. - J
Two-line EmeraldA size of type one size larger than Two-line Nonpareil and one size smaller than Two-line Minion — equal to English in depth of body. - J
Two-line EnglishA size of type one size larger than Two-line Pica and one size smaller than Two-line Great Primer — equal to two lines of English in depth of body. - J
Two-line English regletWooden furniture of that depth in body. - J
Two-line Great PrimerA size of type one size larger than Two-line English and one size smaller than Two-line Double Pica — equal to two Great Primers in depth of body. - J
Two-line Great Primer regletWooden furniture of that depth in body. - J
Two-line lettersPlain initial letters the depth of two lines, used at the commencement of a chapter or work. - J
Two-line Long PrimerA size of type one size larger than Two-line Bourgeois and one size smaller than Two-line Small Pica — equal to Paragon in depth of body. - J
Two-line MinionA size of type one size larger than Two-line Emerald and one size smaller than Two-line Brevier — equal to two Minions in depth of body. - J
Two-line NonpareilA size of type one size larger than Two-line Ruby and one size smaller than Two-line Emerald — equal to Pica in depth of body - J
Two-line PearlA size of type one size larger than Two-line Diamond and one size smaller than Two-line Ruby — equal to Long Primer in depth of body. - J
Two-line PicaA size of type one size larger than Double Pica and one size smaller than Two-line English — equal to two Picas in depth of body. - J
Two-line Pica regletWooden furniture of that depth in body. - J
Two-line RubyA size of type one size larger than Two-line Pearl and one size smaller than Two-line Nonpareil — equal to Small Pica in depth of body. - J
Two-line Small PicaA size of type one size larger than Two-line Long Primer and one size smaller than Two-line Pica — equal to Double Pica in depth of body. - J
TympanThe frame, usually covered with parchment, on which the sheet is placed in printing at a hand-press. - J
Tympan hooksThe thumb-hooks used for tightening the outer and inner tympans together. - J
Tympan sheetsThe sheets placed between the tympans to soften the impression. - J
TypeStamps cast in metal for printing purposes. - J
Type bodiesThis refers to the different sizes to which type is cast. - J
Type casesThe receptacles in which type is laid for composing. - J
Type foundersFirms who cast type; also called letter founders. - J
Type highAnything the height of type. - J
Type holderA receptacle for holding type in stamping by hand. - J
Type lifterA slang expression for a compositor. - J
Type matrixA small oblong piece of copper in which a letter is punched which forms the face of a type in casting; also called ‘‘strikes.’’ - J
Type measureScales of wood or ivory used for measuring type. - J
Type metalAn alloy specially made for type — differing from stereotype and other metals, which are generally of inferior quality. - J
Type mouldThe receptacle in which type is cast. - J
Type musicMusic printed from movable type, as distinct from plate or engraved music. - J
Type pointsAmerican sizes of types are estimated or calculated by points — Pica being a definite number. - J
Type punchesSteel dies which are used for punching a letter into the matrix. - J
Type scaleRules giving the measurement of types of different bodies. - J
Type slingerA slang term for a quick but careless compositor. - J
Type standardsThe recognized depth in different bodies of type. - J
Type writerA mechanical apparatus for writing by means of type. - J
Type-high chasesSpecial chases made the height of type, used for stereotype foundry work. - J
Type-high clumpsMetal clumps cast to the height of type, such as are used for stereotype work. - J
TypingAn amateurish term applied to the setting of any particular line or matter. - J
Typo.A short term for typographer. - J
TypographerA printer from movable types. - J
TypographicRelating to the art of printing by means of movable letters. - J
TypographyThe art of printing from movable letters. - J
UIs the nineteenth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
Un-interleaveTo withdraw the sheets which have been placed between printed work to prevent set-off. - J
Uncut edgesBooks not cut down, but not necessarily ‘‘unopened.’’ - J
Under runnersContinuation of side-notes run under the foot of the page in a similar manner to a foot-note. - J
UnderhandA term used by pressmen in relation to the easy or hard running-in of the carriage under the platen. - J
UnderlayThe process of making-ready under type or cuts — as distinct from ‘‘overlay.’’ - J
Uneven pagesPages with odd folios, such as 1, 3, 5, etc.; also called ‘‘right-hand’’ or ‘‘recto’’ pages. - J
Unfair officesThis term is applied by society hands generally to those printing offices where the existing scale of prices is not recognized. ‘‘Closed’’ offices are not necessarily ‘‘unfair.’’ - J
UngatheredBooks delivered to binders in sheets, i.e. not gathered into books. - J
UniversalA short term for the ‘‘Universal’’ printing machine. - J
Universal jointsA connection with independent action allowing the free working of any two portions of a machine. - J
Universal machineA jobbing platen machine — for steam or treadle — manufactured by Messrs. Hopkinson and Cope. - J
UnleadTo take out the leads from leaded matter. - J
UnlockTo unfasten a forme with mallet and shooting stick. - J
Unopened edgesApplied to books the edges of which have not been opened. - J
UnsheetTo withdraw the interleaving sheets between printed work which have been placed there to prevent set-off. - J
Unsized paperPaper made entirely without size, and consequently very absorbent and adapted for plate printing. - J
Upper caseThe top or upper one of the pair of cases. - J
Upper case sortsThose letters which are contained in the upper one of the pair of cases. - J
UpperhandUsed by pressmen to indicate the movement of the upper part of the press exercised by the bar-handle, the reverse of ‘‘underhand,’’ which see. - J
UprightA page or job set or cut to an upright size — the reverse of oblong. - J
Upright fluesThe main flue or shaft which carries the smoke from the furnace beyond the housetop. - J
VIs not used as a signature in the printer’s alphabet. - J
VantageAn old synonym for the modern one of ‘‘fat.’’ - J
VarnishA resinous liquid used very largely in making printing inks. - J
Vegetable parchmentPaper chemically prepared to imitate parchment. - J
Vegetable vellumJapanese vellum-paper specially prepared to imitate vellum. - J
VellumSpecially prepared parchment of good quality occasionally used for fine printing. - J
Vellum laid paperA laid writing paper with a vellum surface. - J
Vellum wove paperA wove writing paper with a vellum surface. - J
VermilionA colour in ink very largely used for rubricating purposes. - J
VersicleA sign thus â„£ used in prayer books and other religious works. - J
VersoPages with even folios, such as 2, 4, 6. - J
Vertical engineAn upright engine, as distinct from a ‘‘horizontal’’ one. - J
Vesper musicPlain chant or Gregorian music is thus designated. - J
Vibrator rollersThose rollers on a machine which have a vibrating motion, and convey the ink to the slab for distribution. - J
VibratorsA short term for ‘‘vibrator rollers,’’ which see. - J
Victoria blackA fancy black-letter character. - J
Victory machineA newspaper machine which prints from the reel, and has cutting and folding appliances attached. - J
Vigesimo-quartoThe bibliographical term for ‘‘twenty- fourmo,’’ written shortly 24mo. - J
VignettesA class of illustration with the edges undefined, that is, work tapering or thinning off to the extremities. - J
Visiting cardsCards used by ladies or gentlemen, without an address — distinct from ‘‘address cards.’’ - J
VisorumA corruption of the word ‘‘divisorium,’’ an article to hold copy on the case. - J
VocabulariesA class of composition taking an extra charge if arranged in columns. - J
VowelsThe letters a e i o u and sometimes w and y. - J
WIs not used as a signature in the printer’s alphabet. - J
WaffleA slang term sometimes used by printers, meaning twaddle, gossip, or ‘‘jaw.’’ - J
Wages billThe workman’s weekly bill. - J
Wall boxA receptacle cut into the wall for fixing shafting. - J
Walter pressThe printing machine invented by Mr. Walter of ‘‘The Times,’’ and used on that newspaper. - J
WangleA slang term used by printers to express arranging or ‘‘faking’’ matters to one’s own satisfaction or convenience. - J
WarehouseThe department responsible for printed work and ‘‘white’’ paper. - J
Warehouse boysThe lads who assist in the warehouse department. - J
Warehouse knifeA large knife used for cutting up by hand small quantities of paper. - J
WarehousemanThe workman in charge of the warehouse department in a printing office. - J
Warped cutWoodcuts twisted through dampness, generally caused by improper cleansing or storing. - J
WashersRound flat pieces of metal, used for tightening screws or bolts. - J
WashingAn old-fashioned term for ‘‘jerrying,’’ or making a noise on an apprentice coming out of his time. - J
Washing formesCleaning formes after printing. - J
Washing upThe operation of washing up rollers or ink slabs. - J
WasteSurplus sheets of a book beyond the plus copies. Also spoilt sheets used for running up colour on a machine, etc. - J
Waste cardsDefective and rejected cards, usually sold at a cheaper rate than perfect ones. - J
Waste paperDiscarded paper from a printing office. - J
Waste steamSpent or exhaust steam. - J
WatchmanA little flag of paper placed pro tem. in matter as composed, which serves to indicate the position of a footnote. - J
WatermarkThe wire-mark woven to any particular design in a sheet of paper. - J
Waver rollersRollers which distribute ink on the ink table in a diagonal direction. - J
WaversShort term for ‘‘waver rollers.’’ - J
WazgooseThe printer’s annual dinner. - J
Weak inkPoor and thin ink. - J
Web machinesCylindrical printing machines in which the paper is laid on by tapes. - J
WebbingA term for the wider tapes of a printing machine ; also applied to the girthing used for running in and out the carriage of hand-presses. - J
WellA receptacle under the cases in the upper part of a composing frame for holding copy, etc. - J
WelshThe special character of type used for composing works in that language. - J
Welsh casesCases of special lay for composing works in that language. - J
WetterThe workman whose duty it is to ‘‘wet down’’ paper preparatory to printing. - J
Wetting boardsThe boards placed between the different reams in the press in the wetting department. - J
Wetting departmentThat part of a printing office where the paper is ‘‘wetted down.’’ - J
Wetting downThe process of damping paper for printing purposes. - J
Wetting machinesMechanical contrivances for wetting down paper, thus superseding hand wetting. - J
Wetting troughThe receptacle for water used in wetting down paper. - J
WFThese letters stand for ‘‘wrong fount.’’ - J
Whack!An exclamation of disbelief much used by printers. - J
WharfeShort term for the Wharfedale printing machine. - J
Wharfedale machineA cylindrical machine manufactured in Yorkshire and called after the place of that name. - J
WhatmanA general term for Whatman paper of any kind. - J
Whatman paperA first-class quality of hand-made paper. It can be obtained either laid or wove, and is mostly used for drawing purposes It is made by Messrs. Balston. - J
Wheel of pressThe drum in a hand printing press round which the girthing winds when running. - J
WhipA slang term for a more than ordinarily quick compositor. - J
WhiteAny blank space between lines, or the blank portion of a short page is thus termed. - J
White edgesEdges of books simply cut — not coloured or gilded. - J
White lineA line of quadrats at the bottom of a page. Also a full blank line of text body when used in a page. - J
White metalCasts in type metal distinct from electrotype faces. - J
White outTo space or ‘‘branch out ‘‘ any composed matter, such as displayed or advertisement work. - J
White pagesBlank pages in any portion of a printed sheet. - J
White paperA general term used for unprinted work — whether white or coloured paper. - J
White paper registerTo make register without ink by means of impression pulls only. - J
White paper warehousemanIn large offices the person responsible for the white paper or unprinted work. - J
Whitefriars machineA newspaper machine of rotary make invented by Mr. Joseph Pardoe. - J
Whole boundApplied to books entirely bound in leather. - J
Whole fractionsFractions cast on one body, thus — ¼ ½ ¾ — distinct from ‘‘split fractions’’ on half bodies. - J
Whole frameA stand made to hold two pair of cases, with a case rack attached. - J
Whole pressA term used when two men are working at a hand-press. - J
Wide measuresLong and wide measures of type, distinct from narrow or short ones. - J
Wide spacingComposed matter which has more than the average space between the words. - J
WinterThe connecting part of the cheeks of the printing hand-press immediately below the carriage or bed. - J
WipeThis is when the rollers catch or deposit an excess of ink on the edge of a forme in printing. - J
WipingsCotton refuse used for wiping up and cleansing machinery. - J
Wire markApplied more particularly to those ‘‘laid’’ marks in paper which are seen when the sheet is held up to the light. - J
Wire sewnBooks sewn with wire instead of thread. - J
Wire stabbedPamphlets and similar work stabbed with wire instead of thread. - J
Wire stitchedPamphlets and similar work stitched with wire instead of thread. - J
Wood borderAn outside border of wooden rule used for poster and broadside work. - J
Wood composing stickA long composing stick for poster work, made of wood for the sake of lightness. - J
Wood furnitureFurniture made of wood — distinct from ‘‘metal’’ or ‘‘French’’ furniture. - J
Wood letter racksTrays placed in racks for holding founts of wood letter. - J
Wood letter shelvesReceptacles for founts of wood letter. - J
Wood pulp boardsBoards made largely of wood pulp and faced with paper. - J
Wood rulesWooden rules used for the larger class of work, such as posters and broadsides. - J
Woodcut paperA half-plate or rather soft printing paper specially adapted for printing woodcuts and other illustrations. - J
WoodcutsEngravings on wood — generally boxwood. - J
Wooden pressThe first printing hand-presses were made of wood. - J
Wool-holeAn old slang term for the workhouse. - J
Work and turnHalf-sheet work on press or machine so imposed as to give two copies on a sheet when printed both sides. - J
WorkedA synonym for ‘‘printed.’’ - J
Worked offAny forme or sheet printed off. - J
Worked-off sheetsOne or two copies of any work laid aside when printed for reference purposes. - J
Working in pocketA term applied to men working in companionships, where each have equal advantages. - J
Working on linesA compositor on piece-work paid by the number of lines composed. - J
Working on pieceWorkmen paid by the scale of prices in vogue — distinct from ‘‘time-work.’’ - J
Working on timeWorkmen employed and paid by the hour — distinct from ‘‘piece-work.’’ - J
WorksGeneral term for volume work, as distinct from pamphlets or jobs. - J
Wove papersPapers which do not exhibit wire-marks caused in making — distinct from ‘‘laid’’ papers. - J
WrapperA thick and strong paper in which reams of paper are wrapped. - J
WrapperedA term applied to pamphlets with paper wrappers, as distinct from books bound in cloth or leather. - J
WrenchA tool for tightening screws or bolts on a machine. - J
WrinkleA fad or notion — a synonym for a ‘‘trade recipe.’’ - J
Writing paperPaper of a better and harder nature and more highly sized than that used for printing, adapted for writing purposes. - J
Writing parchmentsSelected parchments adapted for writing purposes. - J
Writing vellumsFine and selected vellums for writing purposes. - J
Wrong fountLetters of a different character or series mixed with another fount, although perhaps of the same body. - J
Wrought iron chasesChases made of wrought iron — distinct from ‘‘cast iron.’’ - J
XIs the twentieth signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
XylographyApplied generally to the printing of old block-books. - J
XyloniteA chemically prepared substance used occasionally for tint blocks. - J
Yellow edgesBooks cut and coloured yellow at the edges. - J
Yellow woveA cheap kind of coloured wove paper, but, anomalously, blue in shade. - J
ZIs the twenty -second signature of the printer’s alphabet. - J
Zinc galleysReceptacles on which type is placed, used for slip and newspaper work. - J
Zinc rulesRules cast in zinc — distinct from ‘‘brass rules.’’ - J
ZincoA short term for the zincograph process blocks. - J
ZincographyThe art of producing engravings on zinc by a mechanical process. - J
ZyloniteAn American method of spelling the word ‘‘Xylonite,’’ which see. - J
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